Chemicals of Emerging Concern in Surface and Wastewater: A Perspective of Their Fate Within the Lake Victoria Catchment Area of Kenya
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Rapid technological advancement in the pharmaceuticals and chemical industry has led to synthesis of compounds used for health/personal care and industrial products in large amounts. These chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are consequently released into the environment through industrial emissions, disposal processes, and during use and application. Rapid population growth and urbanization within the Lake Victoria catchment region has inserted tremendous pressure on the environment and its resources, thus resulting to potential point and diverse sources of CECs introduction to the environment. Improper waste disposal and conventional wastewater treatment technology that are practiced in the catchment have not helped in prevention and removal of CECs and other pollutants from the environment. This chapter evaluates the occurrence of CECs mainly in surface and wastewater within the Lake Victoria catchment of Kenya and informs on the fate and diverse health effects that come with their presence in the environment.