QUANTIFICATION OF ESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS IN RIVER ESTUARY AND LAKE WATER FROM SELECT SITES IN THE WINAM GULF OF LAKE VICTORIA, KENYA

No Thumbnail Available
Date
2023
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH
Abstract
ABSTRACTThis study investigates the presence of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (eEDCs) in waters from the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria in Kisumu. The detection of these compounds, including natural estrogens (Estrone - E1 and 17-β estradiol - E2) and synthetic estradiol (ethynyl estradiol - EE2), highlights their significance as neglected pollutants in East Africa. The concentration levels of these eEDCs in water were measured from select river estuaries and fish landing sites competitive Enzyme-linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay. Estrone exhibited the highest concentration, while 17-β estradiol had the lowest. The concentration levels of estrone ranged 0.59-90.74 pg./ml, 17β estradiol (2.47-7.76 pg/ml) and ethinyl estradiol (0.93-15.62 pg./ml). Estrone was observed to be the highest at 115.75 pg/ml. Although the concentrations varied, no significant statistical difference was observed between river and land sites. Notably, rivers passing through densely populated areas showed higher estrogen concentrations. Seasonal variations indicated lower concentrations during wet seasons and higher concentrations during dry seasons. The study suggests that dilution effects may influence concentration levels depending on the distance from shore or river estuary. Overall, the study highlights the potential risk of estrogenic pollutants to aquatic and terrestrial life, emphasizing the need for urgent mitigation strategies to prevent adverse impacts as populations and pollution levels increase.
Description
Keywords
Citation
Kamundia, Waweru & Mbuthia, Paul & Njagi, Lucy & Bebora, Lily & Nyaga, Philip & Mdegela, Robison. (2023). QUANTIFICATION OF ESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS IN RIVER ESTUARY AND LAKE WATER FROM SELECT SITES IN THE WINAM GULF OF LAKE VICTORIA, KENYA. European Journal Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 10. 81-87.
Collections