Level of Metal Pollutants in Water from Nyakomisaro Stream through Kisii Town



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University of Nairobi Research Archive


Environmental pollution is currently one of the major issues facing humanity. It has increased exponentially in the past few years and reached alarming levels in terms of its effects on living creatures (Renge et al., 2012). The presence of toxic metals in the environment and more specifically in the various water sources is of major concern because of their toxicity, non-biodegradable nature and threat to human, animal and plant life. According to Kadirvelu et al., (2001) electroplating, painting, metallurgical, mining, textile, municipal, incineration and chemical manufacturing industries all generate toxic metals at various levels. Toxic metal ions enter into water and soil from different waste-water sources. As a result they pollute the water streams and soil. A number of crops and aquatic plants take up these metals and bio-accumulate them. As trace elements, some of the heavy metals such as Copper and Zinc are essential to maintain the metabolism of the human body however at high concentrations and accumulated levels they could be poisonous. According to Ocharo and Bokea (2014), the concern over the pollution of Nyakomisaro stream has been raised by the regulatory authorities who have cited activities such as car wash centres and damping sites along Nyakomisaro stream as the cause, hence recommending cleanup. The aim of this study was to access the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc metals in water sampled from Nyakomisaro stream.