Structural, Electrical, and Electrochemical Properties of a Na2O-V2O5 Ceramic Nanocomposite as an Active Cathode Material for a Na-Ion Battery

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2023-10-20
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Crystals
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In this paper, a relationship between the structure and the electrical properties of a nanocrystalline composite ceramics xNa2O·(100 − x)V2O5 with ‘x’ of 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 mol%, abbreviated as xNV, was investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cathode active performance in Na-ion battery (SIB). For the expected sodium vanadium bronzes (NaxV2O5) precipitation, the preparation of xNV was performed by keeping the system in the molten state at 1200 °C for one hour, followed by a temperature decrease in the electric furnace to room temperature at a cooling rate of 10 °C min−1. XRD patterns of the 15NV ceramic exhibited the formation of Na0.33V2O5 and NaV3O8 crystalline phases. Moreover, the V K-edge XANES showed that the absorption edge energy of ceramics 15NV recorded at 5479 eV is smaller than that of V2O5 at 5481 eV, evidently indicating a partial reduction from V5+ to V4+ due to the precipitation of Na0.33V2O5. In the cyclic voltammetry, reduction peaks of 15NV were observed at 1.12, 1.78 V, and 2.69 V, while the oxidation peak showed up only at 2.36 V. The values of the reduction peaks were related to the NaV3O8 crystalline phase. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of Na+ (DNa+) gradually decreased from 8.28 × 10−11 cm2 s−1 to 1.23 × 10−12 cm2 s−1 with increasing Na2O content (x) from 5 to 45 mol%. In the evaluation of the active cathode performance of xNV in SIB, ceramics 15NV showed the highest discharge capacity 203 mAh g−1 at a current rate of 50 mA g−1. In the wider voltage range from 0.8 to 3.6 V, the capacity retention was maintained at 50% after 30 cycles, while it was significantly improved to 90% in the narrower voltage range from 1.8 to 4.0 V, although the initial capacity decreased to 56 mAh g−1. It is concluded that the precipitation of the Na0.33V2O5 phase improved the structural and electrical properties of 15NV, which provides a high capacity for the Na-ion battery when incorporated as a cathode active material.
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Ibrahim A, Watanabe S, Razum M, Pavić L, Homonnay Z, Kuzmann E, Hassaan MY, Kubuki S. Structural, Electrical, and Electrochemical Properties of a Na2O-V2O5 Ceramic Nanocomposite as an Active Cathode Material for a Na-Ion Battery. Crystals. 2023; 13(10):1521. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13101521
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