Optical modelling of TCO based FTO/TiO2 multilayer thin films and simulation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell

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Hydrogenated Amorphous silicon (a:Si:H) has low amounts of defects making it attractive for photovoltaic applications. To improve power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a:Si:H solar cells, this study investigated the effect of introducing FTO/TiO2 multilayer thin films into its structure to serve as antireflection coating. The multilayer thin films were characterized and optimized by optical simulations using a computer program, GLSIM (glazing simulator). The program was written in FORTRAN and implemented in MATLAB. The multi-Fresnel equations were employed to create the GLSIM program. Then using the program, together with the pairs of real and imaginary values of complex refractive index, n and k respectively, the transmittance and reflectance data of FTO/TiO2 multilayer thin films on glass substrate were computed. The optimized FTO/TiO2 multilayer thin films were then incorporated into silicon solar cell with structure glass/FTO/TiO2/n-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/p-a:Si:H/P+-BSF and characterized using SCAPS-1D software. The effect of varying layer thickness on the solar cell performance was also investigated. The optimized solar cell had a thickness of 100 nm, 50 nm, 900 nm, 100 nm, 10μm and 5μm for FTO, TiO2, n-a-Si:H, i-a-Si:H, p-a-Si:H and P+-BSF respectively. The device output performance were 37.96 mA/cm2, 1.34 V, 56.37% and 28.72% for Jsc, Voc, FF and η respectively showing a remarkable improvement in the solar cell performance. These results show potential of fabricating an improved hydrogenated silicon solar cell.