ItemEvidence on the links between water insecurity, inadequate sanitation and mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis(PLoS One, 2023-05-25) Kimutai, Joan J.; Lund, Crick; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Shewangizaw, Seble; Feyasa, Merga; Hanlon, CharlotteBackground Water insecurity and inadequate sanitation have adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals. Objective To review and synthesize evidence on the relationship between water insecurity, inadequate sanitation, and mental health globally. Data sources Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inception up to March 2023. Study eligibility criteria Only quantitative studies were included. The exposure was water insecurity and or inadequate sanitation. The outcome was common mental disorders (CMD: depression or anxiety), mental distress, mental health or well-being. There was no restriction on geographical location. Participants General population or people attending health facilities or other services. Exposure Water insecurity and/ or inadequate sanitation. Risk of bias The effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) assessment tool was used to assess quality of selected studies. Synthesis of results A meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects statistical model. Results Twenty-five studies were included, with 23,103 participants from 16 countries in three continents: Africa (Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Uganda, South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, and Lesotho), Asia (Nepal, Bangladesh, India, and Iran) and the Americas (Brazil, Haiti, Bolivia and Vietnam). There was a statistically significant association between water insecurity and CMD symptoms. Nine studies reported a continuous outcome (5,248 participants): overall standardized mean difference (SMD = 1.38; 95% CI = 0.88, 1.87). Five studies reported a binary outcome (5,776 participants): odds ratio 5.03; 95% CI = 2.26, 11.18. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate sanitation and CMD symptoms (7415 participants), overall SMD = 5.36; 95% CI = 2.51, 8.20. Limitations Most of the included studies were cross-sectional which were unable to examine temporal relationships. Conclusions Water insecurity and inadequate sanitation contribute to poorer mental health globally. Implications of key findings Interventions to provide basic water, sanitation and psychosocial support, could substantially contribute to reducing the burden of CMD alongside other health and social benefits. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42022322528. ItemMetaviromic analysis reveals coinfection of papaya in western Kenya with a unique strain of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus and a novel member of the family Alphaflexiviridae(Springer, 2020-03-09) Read, David Alan; Muoma, John; Thompson, Genevieve DawnSevere mottling symptoms were observed on Carica papaya L. in Koyonzo, Kakamega County, Kenya. Total RNA was sequenced via an RNAtag-seq workflow. Assembled contigs indicated the presence of a divergent strain of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (genus Potyvirus) with a complete genome length of 9,733 nt (GenBank accession no. MN418119). Additionally, the complete genome sequence of a novel member of the viral genus Allexivirus was determined (GenBank accession no. MN418120). The genome contains six open reading frames (ORFs) that show varying degrees of sequence similarity to members of the genus Allexivirus; however, it appears to lack an ORF encoding a nucleic-acid-binding homolog. The tentative name “papaya virus A” (PaVA) has been proposed for this virus. ItemMathematical modelling of The East Africa Marine Systems (TEAMS) fiber optic(Strathmore, 2015) Bulinda, Vincent MajorThe concept of high bandwidth capabilities and low attenuation characteristics make it ideal for gigabit data transmission possible because light energy can be modelled in a wave. Mathematics and communication plays an integral role in today's world economic platform especially in large scale transmission of data and voice. We consider a cylindrical dielectric waveguide made of silica glass. The discussion will be based on the nature and behaviour of some of the ordinary differential equations (ODE's) and the partial differential equations (PDE's) namely; Maxwell equations, Schrodinger's equations and the Bessel functions and their interactions and applications then investigate the fiber optics solutions theory in communication engineering which plays a vital role in transmission capacity than metallic cables and therefore suited to the increase demand for high transmission capacity and speed. The problem involves studying the motion of sound which is a wave subjected to a sinusoidal forcing function. In this case the focus will be on Kenya being one of the developing countries in communication to the rest of the East African countries: Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania through cross-border connectivity arrangements and how fiber cables have enabled this happen in sharing data as fast as possible. The differential equations used in describing pulse propagation in the dispersion-dominated nonlinear fiber channel should demonstrate an agreement between the analytical results and the numeric. This technique is aimed at simplification of digital signal processing of nonlinear impairments represented graphically. ItemMapping of Groundwater through the Integration of Remote Sensing and Vertical Electrical Sounding in ASALs: A Case Study of Turkana South Sub-County, Kenya(Scientific Research, 2019-11-28) Nyaberi, Daniel Mogaka; Basweti, Evans; Barongo, Justus Obiko; Ogendi, George Mokua; Kariuki, Patrick ChegeTurkana South Sub-County falls in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya, which are characterized temperatures of 20˚C to 41˚C with an average of 30.5˚C and precipitation in the range of 52 mm to 480 mm per year. The area has limited availability of water resources. The area has a land surface of 18,000 km2 and lies between Longitudes 35˚10'00" and 36˚45'00" East and between Latitudes 1˚0'00" and 3˚0'00" North. The study area faces immense difficulties in trying to meet its water requirements for her rapidly increasing populace, livestock needs and other developmental programmes. Surface water in the area is becoming unobtainable, thus the choice of groundwater exploitation. Indeed with the snowballing demand necessitated by energy, agricultural and livestock production needs in this area, there is an appeal into investigation for groundwater in this greatly remote and extensive area. Thus, the success in the exploration, development and management of groundwater in such a large area calls for such methods that can easily be used to zero down to exploitable targets. Given the expansiveness of the study area, remote sensing (RS) has been used to map lineaments which in turn have been used to deduce faulting affecting the geology of the area. The mapping by RS helped in identifying weathered zones, the fracture systems and fault zones sign of deeper weathered zones which are interpreted to be potential areas since mainly water is stored within fractures and the weathered zones in subterranean and in hard rocks. In the field topographic expressions of faults and fractures which include; joints, fractures, scarps, river channels and slope breaks were mapped and it was observed that there was a comparison of the features to the coincidence raster and aspect interpreted lineaments. The earmarked points were later investigated using vertical electrical sounding (VES) to establish their feasibility for groundwater availability and extraction. The investigated VES points in areas of high lineament density revealed decreasing resistivity with increasing depth of investigation, a confirmation of faulting. The data presented curves, type KH, type KK, and type Q. Further investigation was done in points of low lineament density, considered to be least affected by faulting and deep weathering, which turned out to be having increasing resistivity with increasing depth of investigation, an indication of layered lithology. The zones of low lineament density are represented by a type A curve, a type H curve, type HH. There is a good agreement in the results of remote sensing data and VES data models generated where the high lineaments density points concur with areas of good groundwater potential. ItemRecognition of Informal Norms in Creating Resilient Water Management Structures : The Case of Soweto East, Nairobi(HAL Science, 2016-12-13) Achwoka, Jacqueline WalubwaCities are made up of assemblages of incoherent wholes which co-exist together in a seemingly placid or tolerating mode of existence. Due to their nature and neo-liberalist policies governing them, the urban services are assumed to be provided in the right quantities and the right time for all, which is not always the case as many interests are at play contesting the powers that are. Water – a basic good and right enshrined in many nations’ constitutions is still a far cry for all, is at the crux of this thesis in which a case study of Soweto East – a routinely marginalized heavily contested ‘ghetto’ space in which the residents have suffered historical neglect and injustice in the provision of basic urban goods and services and a site of several failed development interventions which foster urban injustice and further entrench the lack of the right to dwell in the city- has been used to depict the governance of a water system to ensure resilience and sustainability in the wake of the Sustainable Development Goals. Using the Governance Analytical Framework, this thesis unpackages the contested s(p)laces where dwellers have democratically organized themselves to take charge of their destiny by creating systems that utilize both the statutory norms and informal norms in differing measures to ensure that they can lay claim on water services. The system boasts of a rich interwoven tapestry of both historical and current claims for its being. The research explores the different roles and relationships existing between the various actors who move in between discourses of the local realities, relying on their local political economy to define or adapt to the actualization of the basic human right to a descent livelihood in the city and minimize the scarcity of these urban goods and services. Mixed method research infused with ethnography and archival material demonstrated the unique governance features of this particular system which is a model of a non-conformist emergent space where the dwellers are critical in governing their water system using the informal norms and systems. ItemThe study of the effects of Mau Catchment Degradation on the Flow of the Mara River, Kenya(Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2017-03-07) Oruma, Samuel KipampiThe Mara River is the lifeline of the Trans boundary Mara basin across Kenya and Tanzania.The basin is considered one of the more serene sub-catchments of the Lake Victoria Basinand ultimately the Nile Basin. The basin traverses the famous Maasai Mara and SerengetiNational Parks in Kenya and Tanzania respectively. The basin also contains forests, largescalefarms, smallholder farms, pastoral grazing lands, as well as hunter gatherers and fishers.There is growing concern however, regarding land degradation in the basin, particularlydeforestation in the headwaters, that is affecting the natural resource base and the river flows.Scientific studies are required to advise on policy issues, and to plan appropriate mitigationmeasures. This study utilizes remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS)tools, and hydrological and ground-truth studies to determine the magnitude of the landuse/cover changes in the Mara River Basin, and the effects of these changes on the riverflows over the last 30 years. The results of the studies indicate that land-use/cover changeshave occurred in the basin. In 1973, for example, rangelands (savannah, grasslands andshrublands) covered 10,989 km2 (79%) of the total basin area. The rangelands have now beenreduced to 7,245 km2 (52%) by 2000. The forest areas have been reduced by 32% over thesame period. These changes have been attributed to the encroachment of agriculture, whichhas more than doubled (203%) its land area over the same period. To investigate the effectsof land cover change on river flow, stream flow was generated from derived land coverthematic maps of 1973 and 2000 using the same rainfall and evaporation data of 1983 to 1992period. The other model input datasets for topography and soils were held constantduring the two runs. The differences in the generated hydrographs could only be associated tochanges in land cover, which was the only variable. The percentage difference between themean annual stream flows of the two hydrographs was negligible at 0.01%. This studytherefore concludes that land cover changes in the basin have changed the day to dayflow characteristics of the river but the annual flow volumes remain unaffected. There isneed for urgent action to stem the land degradation of the Mara River Basin, includingplanning and implementing appropriate mitigation measures. ItemWater scarcity influenced water use coping mechanisms in selected sites of Makueni County, Kenya(Archives of Current Research International, 2017-03-04) Nthenge, Anthony K.; Kimiti, Jacinta M.Water constitutes a vital element of household food security for humans and livestock. Therefore,the general objective of this study was to establish the ease of water access, water scarcity andcoping strategies used by rural communities in selected study sites of Makueni (Kilili sub-locationin Makueni sub-county and Kyanguli sub-location in Kibwezi East sub-county), all located inMakueni County. The study involved a total of 70 households which were selected using clusterand simple random approach to gather quantitative data using household surveys. The data werecollected using a structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews with key informants. Thecollected data was coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).Results from the analysed data were presented using tables. Results obtained revealed thatmajority of the households obtained water from rivers (78%), followed by shallow wells (31%),boreholes (28%), sand dams (24%) and springs (11%). However, most respondents at Kyanguliobtained water from rivers (94%) compared to Kilili (62%). Further, at Kilili sub-location, majority of the households got water within less than 1 km (46%) while at Kyanguli most respondents gotwater within 1-3 km (48%). Five major water access problems were documented in the study sitesincluded increasing distance to water sources, high cost of water, dirty water, water scarcity andconflict with neighboring communities. In overall water scarcity was the commonest problem inboth study sites (77%), followed by dirty water (62%), increasing distance to water sources (45%),high cost of water (44%) and conflict with neighboring communities (43%). Water use copingmechanisms identified in the study included use of water harvesting structures, soil conservationtechniques, diversification of crop types and varieties, irrigation, water reuse, reducing number oflivestock and reduced water use. In overall the commonly used water copying mechanismsincluded soil conservation (85%), water reuse (71%), reduced livestock (64%), reduced water use(55%) and crop diversification (54%). We concluded that water scarcity, dirty water, increasingdistance to water sources, high cost of water and conflict with neighboring communities were themain challenges which led the households to develop water coping mechanisms in the selectedsites of Makueni County. We recommend the results of this study to be used by policy makers inwater development projects in Makueni to improve water availability and access in the selectedstudy sites. ItemThe Contribution of Community Water Management Systems to Enhanced Water Security under Changing Legal and Weather Conditions in Kenya(Journal of Asian and African Studies, 2014-04-30) Mathenge, James Maina; Luwesi, Cush Ngonzo; Shisanya, Chris Allan; Mahiri, Ishmail; Akombo, Adhiambo; Mutiso, Mary NyawiraSince the implementation of the water sector reforms in Kenya in 2006, Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha catchment of Mount Kenya Region has seen the emergence of a Water Resource Users' Association (WRUA) amid dozens of Water Service Providers (WSPs) and hundreds of Community Water Management Systems (CWMSs). These new legal institutions were mandated to enhance water security through good management of the catchment’s land and water resources and provision of adequate water services to all the stakeholders with their participation in water resources management. This study sought to assess the status of the water balance and security in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha Catchment prior and after the establishment of a WRUA therein. This would thus elicit the contribution of CWMSs to water security in Ngaciuma- Kinyaritha under changing legal and climatic environments. For that purpose, the study used descriptive statistics, OLS regression and hydrological modelling to compute the streamflow, water demand and balance from 1990 to 2012, and predict the future water security from 2013 to 2035 under the NOR scenario (normal weather conditions), XLOSS scenario (flooding) and XSCAR scenario (drought) using BasinIT software, SPSS and MS Excel spreadsheets. Most of the results were pointing out to water shortages in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha from 1993 and onward, generally without enforcement of an Ecological Base Flow (EBF) of 30% by the WRMA. There is therefore need for contingency plans to curb unexpected drought, which should be implemented by the WRUA with participation of existing CWMSs. However, further attribution studies are needed to explain the failure or success of the new legal institutions mandated to manage and supply water in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha, namely WRMA, WRUA and WSPs ItemSociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016-12-06) Wasonga, Job; Okowa, Mark; Kioli, FelixProvision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrheal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. However, lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices in most parts of rural Kenya have posed a challenge that exposes the populace to diarrhea cases and possible deaths. In this regard, many nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies have tried to provide water, sanitation, and hygiene services with poor results. This study was conducted using qualitative research methods in Central Nyakach in Kisumu County, Kenya. The methods were focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII), and observation of homesteads. The data were then analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that water issues are gendered and its use is socially and culturally categorized. Water storage is affected by traditions such as use of a clay pot, while sanitation and hygiene issues are ritualized and bound by taboos. Latrines are majorly constructed by men and sharing the same with in-laws and older children is prohibited. Children faeces are thrown out in the open fields as a means of disposal and hand washing with soap is nonexistent, since it is believed that doing so would make a person lose the ability to rear livestock. The implications of these findings are that some of these sociocultural practices have a profound effect on health of the population. This affects health care delivery through high incidence rates of disease, encourages “unhealthy” environments through open defecation and pollution, and negates the government’s commitment to national and international policies on universal health care provision. ItemSeasonal rainfall forecasting using the Multi-Model Ensemble Technique over the Greater Horn of Africa(Academe Research Journals, 2014-07-14) Otieno, George; Opijah, Franklin; Ogalo, Laban; Ongoma, Victor; Sabiiti, GeoffreyThe spatial distribution of rainfall anomalies of the observed models output during extreme events showed that the ensemble model was able to simulate El-Niño (1997) and La-Niña (2000) years. The ensemble models did not show good skill in capturing the magnitude of the extreme events. The skill of the ensemble model was higher than that for the member models in terms of its ability to capture the rainfall peaks during the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. The analysis for the correlation coefficients showed higher values for the ensemble model output than for the individual models over the Equatorial region with the stations in the northern and southern sectors of the GHA comparatively giving low skill. The ensemble modeling technique significantly improved the skill of forecasting, including the sectors where individual models had low skill. In general, the skill of the models was relatively higher during the onset of the ENSO event and became low towards the decaying phase of the ENSO period. Generally, the study has shown that the ensemble seasonal forecasting significantly adds skill to the forecasts especially for October-December (OND) rainy seasons. From the study, ensemble seasonal forecasting significantly adds skill to the forecasts over the region. Blending dynamical ensemble forecasts with statistical forecast currently being produced during Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) would add value to seasonal forecasts. This significantly reduces the impacts and damages associated with climate extremes over the region. ItemGenetic Improvement of African Maize towards Drought Tolerance(IISTE, 2016) Budambula, Nancy; Muli, Jushua K.; Mweu, Cecilia; Imbo, Mary C.; Anami, Sylvester E.Africa supports a population of over 1 billion people with over half of them depending on maize for food andfeed either directly or indirectly. Maize in Africa is affected by many stresses, both biotic and abiotic whichsignificantly reduce yields and eventually lead to poor production. Due to the high demand for maize in theregion, different improvement strategies have been employed in an effort to improve production. These includeconventional breeding, molecular breeding, high throughput phenotyping techniques and remote sensing-basedtechniques. Conventional breeding techniques such as open pollination have been used to develop droughtavoiding maize varieties like the Kito open pollinated variety (OPV) of Tanzania and Guto OPV of Ethiopia. Acombination of conventional breeding and molecular biology techniques has led to improved breeding strategieslike the Marker Assisted Back Crossing (MABC) and Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection (MARS). Thesetechniques have been used to improve drought tolerance in existing inbred maize lines like the CML 247 andCML 176. Through genetic engineering, different genes including C4-PEPC, NPK1, betA, ZmNF-YB2, cspB,ZmPLC1 and TsVP have been cloned in maize. Transgenic maize crops expressing these genes have shownincreased tolerance to drought stress. Although there is substantial progress towards developing drought tolerantmaize, many African farmers are yet to benefit from this technology. This is due to lack of an enabling policyframework as well as a limited financial investment in biotechnology research. ItemHousehold's socio-economic factors influencing the level of adaptation to climate variability in the dry zones of Eastern Kenya(Elsevier, 2015-11-04) Mugi-Ngenga, E. W.; Mucheru-Muna, M. W.; Mugwe, J. N.; Ngetich, F. K.; Mairura, F. S.; Mugendi, D. N.Climate variability has a negative impact on crop productivity and has had an effect on many small-holder farmers in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). Small-holder farmers in Eastern Kenya are faced with the constraint associated with climate variability and have consequently made effort at local level to utilize adaptation techniques in their quest to adapt to climate variability. However, documentation of the factors that influence the level of adaptation to climate variability in the study area is quite limited. Hence, this study aimed at assessing how the household's socio-economic factors influence the level of adaptation to climate variability. The study sites were Tharaka and Kitui-Central sub-Counties in Tharaka-Nithi and Kitui Counties of Eastern Kenya respectively. The data collected included the household demographic and socio-economic characteristics and farmers' adaptation techniques to cope with climate variability. Triangulation approach research design was used to simultaneously collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Primary data was gathered through a household survey. Both random and purposive sampling strategies were employed. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Multinomial and Binary logistic regression models were used to predict the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the level of adaptation to climate variability. This was done using variables derived through a data reduction process that employed Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study considered five strategies as measures of the level of adaptation to climate variability; crop adjustment; crop management; soil fertility management; water harvesting and crop types; boreholes and crop variety. Several factors were found significant in predicting the level of adaptation to climate variability as being either low or medium relative to high. These were average size of land under maize; farming experience; household size; household members involved in farming; education level; age; main occupation and gender of the household head. Household socio economic factors found significant in explaining the level of adaptation should be considered in any efforts that aim to promote adaptation to climate variability in the agricultural sector amongst smallholder farmers. ItemIndigenous and conventional climate-knowledge for enhanced farmers' adaptation to climate variability in the semi-arid agro-ecologies of Kenya(Meru University of Science and Technology, 2021) Mugi-Ngenga, E. W.; Kiboi, M. N.; Mucheru-Muna, M. W.; Mugwe, J. N.; Mairura, F. S.; Mugendi, D. N.; Ngetich, F. K.Climate variability is among the main threats to rain-dependent smallholder farming in most sub-Saharan Africa countries. Hence, farmers should make efforts at the local level to utilize indigenous knowledge (IK) combined with conventional knowledge to adapt to climate variability impacts. We assessed; IK used by farmers in climate forecasting, their perceptions of climate variability and adaptation strategies, and their correlation with conventional approaches. We conducted the study in Tharaka South and Kitui Central sub-counties of Kenya. We used the triangulation approach to obtain the quantitative and qualitative data. To select respondents, we used purposive and random sampling strategies combined with the snowballing technique. Observed rainfall and temperature data from 1998 to 2018 were obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). Results showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the use of indigenous indicators such as observation of the behavior of the sky (χ2 = 14.631), moon (χ2 = 7.851), and wind (χ2 = 5.864). The majority of the smallholder farmers (87%) used the change in the behavior of trees as the indigenous indicator in weather forecasting. The most common adaptation strategies (over 80%) used were food storage for future use (88.5%) and change of planting dates (87.5%). The analysis output of conventional data from KMD conformed with the farmers' observations and perception of climate variability over the reference period. Because farmers are still using IK that agrees with conventional knowledge, there is a need to integrate IK with conventional knowledge for use by rain-fed-dependent smallholder farmers in climate forecasting. ItemSuitability of different data sources in rainfall pattern characterization in the tropical central highlands of Kenya(Heliyon, 2020) Nathan, Oduor O.; Felix, Ngetich K.; Milka, Kiboi N.; Anne, Muriuki; Noah, Adamtey; Daniel, Mugendi N.Uncertainty in rainfall pattern has put rain-fed agriculture in jeopardy, even for the regions considered high rainfall potential like the Central Highlands of Kenya (CHK). The rainfall pattern in the CHK is spatially and temporally variable in terms of onset and cessation dates, frequency and occurrence of dry spells, and seasonal distribution. Appraisal of the variability is further confounded by the lack of sufficient observational data that can enable accurate characterisation of the rainfall pattern in the region. We, therefore, explored the utilisation of satellite daily rainfall estimates from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for rainfall pattern characterisation in the CHK. Observed daily rainfall data sourced from Kenya meteorological department were used as a reference point. The observation period was from 1997 to 2015. Rainfall in the CHK was highly variable, fairly distributed and with low intensity in all the seasons. Onset dates ranged between mid-February to mid-March and mid-August to mid-October for long rains (LR) and short rains (SR) seasons, respectively. Cessation dates ranged from late May to mid-June and mid-December to late December for the LR and SR, respectively. There was a high probability (93%) of dry spell occurrence. More research needs to be done on efficient use of the available soil moisture and on drought tolerant crop varieties to reduce the impact of drought on crop productivity. Comparison between satellite and observed rain gauge data showed close agreement at monthly scale than at daily scale, with general agreement between the two datasets. Hence, we concluded that, given the availability, accessibility, frequency of estimation and spatial resolution, satellite estimates can complement observed rain gauge data. Stakeholders in the fields of agriculture, natural resource management, environment among others, can utilise the findings of this study in planning to reduce rainfall-related risks and enhance food security.