Natural Resources Management

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    Effect of Land Use on Leaf Litter Decomposition in Upper Mara Streams, Kenya
    (Egerton University, 2018-01-18) Tsisiche, A.; M’merimba, C.; Mbaka, J. G.
    Modification of riparian vegetation via land use change alters leaf litter processing rates in streams. This study aimed at investigating the effect of land use change from forestry to agriculture on leaf litter decomposition in the upper Mara River catchment, Kenya. The study involved collecting, drying and weighing leaves of Eucalyptus saligna (exotic) and Macrocalyx neubotonia (native). About 6g of each leaf species was enclosed in litter bags measuring 11 x 11cm and mesh size of 10mm. The bags were exposed randomly in six streams; three draining agricultural and three draining indigenous forests. They were later retrieved at intervals of 0, 1,3,7,14,28 and 48 days, dried and weighed. The difference in processing rates of Eucalyptus leaves were statistically not significant (insert test and statistics) between streams draining indigenous forest (mean -k = 0.039±0.009, pooleddata) and streams draining agricultural areas decaying Macrocalyx leaves were –k = 0.095±0.005 in streams draining agricultural areasand k=0.062±0.01 for streams draining indigenous forest. The two values differed significantly (t = 2.892, d.f=4, p= < 0.05). Significant differences in processing rates were also evident between Eucalyptus and Macrocalyx leaves in streams draining indigenous and agricultural forests respectively (ttest, p<0.05). It would take 63 and 69 days for 90% of leaves of Eucalyptus to be processed in agricultural and forested streams respectively whilst Macrocalyx leaves would take 24 and 53 days. Processing rates for the two leaves were generally higher in agricultural streams than in forested streams most probably due to higher nutrients especially Phosphate concentration arising from agricultural land. In all the study streams SRP had significant correlation with decay rates for both species. Significant differences in processing rates observed between the two leave species could be attributed to differences in leave toughness and the presence of inhibitory compounds in eucalypts. The findings of this study suggest that land use change interacts with change in the composition of riparian tree species to influence decomposition ratesof leaf litter in streams. This has implications on theEgerton J. Sci. & Technol. Volume 16:functional organization of shredders and nutrient cycling in streams. This study confirms that land use activity has an effect on litter decomposition rates in Upper Mara catchment streams. However Eucalyptus decomposition did not respond to change in land use activity because of its poor quality which masks the land use effect.
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    VEGETATION, WILDLIFE AND LIVESTOCK RESPONSES TO PLANNED GRAZING MANAGEMENT IN AN AFRICAN PASTORAL LANDSCAPE: PLANNED GRAZING ENHANCES PASTORAL RANGELAND PRODUCTIVITY
    (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017-02-22) Odadi, Wilfred; Fargione, Joe; Rubenstein, Daniel
    Rangelands are vital for wildlife conservation and socio-economic well-being, but many face widespread degradation due in part to poor grazing management practices. Planned grazing management, typically involving time-controlled rotational livestock grazing, is widely touted as a tool for promoting sustainable rangelands. However, real-world assessments of its efficacy have been lacking in communal pastoral landscapes globally, and especially in Africa. We performed landscape-scale assessment of the effects of planned grazing on selected vegetation, wildlife and cattle attributes across wide-ranging communally managed pastoral rangelands in northern Kenya. We found that planned grazing enhanced vegetation condition through a 17% increase in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 45-234% increases in herbaceous vegetation foliar cover, species richness and diversity, and a 70% reduction in plant basal gap. In addition, planned grazing increased the presence (44%) and species richness (53%) of wild ungulates, and improved cattle weight gain (>71%) during dry periods when cattle were in relatively poor condition. These changes occurred relatively rapidly (within 5 years) and despite grazing incursion incidents and higher livestock stocking rates in planned grazing areas. These results demonstrate, for the first time in Africa, the positive effects of planned grazing implementation in communal pastoral rangelands. These improvements can have broad implications for biodiversity conservation and pastoral livelihoods.
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    Effects of Climate Variability on Foraging Behaviour of Bees: A Case Study of Marigat and Ratat locations in Baringo County, Kenya
    (Elsevier, 2019-05-17) Haron, Akala; Makindi, Stanley; Moses, Esilaba
    Beekeeping is among the livelihood diversification strategies likely affected by climate variability. The variation in temperature and rainfall influence forage phenology impacting on honey production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya. The study focused on the relationship between rainfall variability on honey production among the pastoral communities. Rainfall variability was exhibited in the study area and in some circumstances drought was experienced annually. On average, 19 plant species were recorded that the bees prefer in the study area. Rainfall variability has significant positive correlation (r=0.423;p=0.001) on the effect on plant phenology thus altering flowering periods of many of the forage plants, changing the foraging behaviour of bees resulting to decrease in honey production. The findings of this study indicate that variation in rainfall has had an adverse effect on honey production and therefore there is need to incorporate land management strategies that will improve honey production in ASALs for sustainable livelihoods among pastoral communities in the context of climate variability.
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    Propagation And Regeneration Of Important Indigenous Tree Species In Kakamega Forest, Kenya
    (EduPedia Publications (P) Ltd, 2018-08-01) Busuru, Carolyne; G., Obwoyere; Kirui, Bernard
    study evaluated regeneration potential of P. africana vis a vis Olea capensis and Croton megalocarpus, identified the seed for propagation and suitable sowing media that gives optimum germination results. An experiment was set to evaluate these. Seeds were collected prepared, germinated under the different media types and germination percent monitored. The data was collected on mean germination percent in different media ratio and statistical analyses conducted. The results indicated that There was significant difference in the timing of the collection of seeds (F 2, 60, f=24.47, P<0.001). Germination rate was significantly lower in stored seeds compared to the other two seed collection stages i.e. mature green seeds and mature ripe. There was a significant ‘medium’ effect on the germination of C. megalocarpus (F6,62, f=4.84, p<0.001), Prunus africana (Chi- square test = 14.10, d. f= 6, p = 0.029) and O. capensis (Chi –square test = 18.33, d. f= 6, p = 0.005). From the results, it was concluded that the best seed for propagation of P. africana is seed freshly harvested, mature and ripe even without any pre-treatment. It is therefore recommended that P. africana seed should be sown in sand: sawdust 1:1 immediately after harvesting for optimum germination.
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    Improved region-specific emission factors for enteric methane emissions from cattle in smallholder mixed crop: livestock systems of Nandi County, Kenya
    (CSIRO PUBLISHING, 2018-08-01) Ndung’u, P. W.; Bebe, B. O.; Ondiek, J. O.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Merbold, L.; Goopy, J. P.
    National greenhouse-gas (GHG) inventories in most developing countries, and in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular, use default (Tier I) GHG emission factors (EFs) provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from livestock. Because these EFs are based on data primarily from developed countries, there is a high degree of uncertainty associated with CH4 emission estimates from African livestock systems. Accurate Tier II GHG emission reporting from developing countries becomes particularly important following the Paris Climate agreement made at COP21, which encourages countries to mitigate GHG emissions from agricultural sources. In light of this, the present study provides improved enteric CH4 emission estimates for cattle in Nandi County, Western Kenya, representing a common livestock production system found in East Africa. Using the data from measurements of liveweight and liveweight change, milk production and locomotion collected from 1143 cattle in 127 households across 36 villages over three major agro-ecological zones covering a full year, we estimated total metabolic energy requirements. From this and assessments of digestibility from seasonally available feeds, we estimated feed intake and used this to calculate daily CH4 production by season, and, subsequently, created new EFs. Mean EFs were 50.6, 45.5, 28.5, 33.2 and 29.0 kg CH4/head.year for females (>2 years), males (>2 years), heifers (1–2 years), young males (1–2 years) and calves (<1 year) respectively, and were lower than the IPCC Tier I estimates for unspecified African adult cattle, but higher for calves and young males. Thus, using IPCC Tier 1 EFs may overestimate current enteric CH4 emissions in some African livestock systems.
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    Environmentally persistent free radicals and particulate emissions from the thermal degradation of Croton megalocarpus biodiesel
    (Springer, 2018-09-01) Mosonik, Bornes; Kibet, Joshua; Ngari, Mwaniki; Nyamori, Vincent
    Pyrolysis of biodiesel at high temperatures may result in the formation of transient and stable free radicals immobilized on particulate emissions. Consequently, free radicals adsorbed on particulates are believed to be precursors for health-related illnesses such as cancer, cardiac arrest, and oxidative stress. This study explores the nature of free radicals and particulate emissions generated when Croton megalocarpus biodiesel is pyrolyzed at 600 °C in an inert environment of flowing nitrogen at a residence time of 0.5 s at 1 atm. The surface morphology of thermal emissions were imaged using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG SEM) while the radical characteristics were investigated using an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer (EPR). A g-value of 2.0024 associated with a narrow ∆Hp-p of 3.65 G was determined. The decay rate constant for the radicals was low (1.86 × 10−8 s−1) while the half-life was long ≈ 431 days. The observed EPR characterization of Croton megalocarpus thermal particulates revealed the existence of free radicals typical of those found in coal. The low g-value and low decay rate constant suggests that the free radicals in particulates are possibly carbon-centered. The mechanistic channel for the formation of croton char from model biodiesel component (9-dodecenoic acid, methyl ester) has been proposed in this study.
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    Physico-chemical, Palynological Characterization and Valorization of Clay Soils from Aterait and Okwata villages in Teso South Constituency (Busia County) in Kenya
    (The World Organization of Applied Sciences (WOAS ), 2020-06-14) Opuru, Francis; Wafula, Peter; Amwana, Sharon
    Clay soil has vast application especially in the manufacture of ceramics and refractory bricks. Samples of clayed materials from Okwata (AT1) and Aterait (AT2) villages in Teso South Constituency in Kenya were characterized for valorization. Several trial tests were done on the test specimens at varied temperatures. Considering the particle size analysis, the study revealed that clayed materials have non-congested particle size and their plasticity index lies between 17 and 48. Based on the mineralogical study, the samples showed the presence of feldspars, hematite, Kaolin, illite, and Quartz. The sandy nature of these clays is explained by high levels of silica content. The density and linear shrinkage increases with temperature while compressive strength decreases with temperature. Considering the analyses done on ceramic materials after firing, the study recommends that clay content are fit for the manufacture of refractory bricks.
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    Drivers and responses to climate variability by agro-pastoralists in Kenya: the case of Laikipia County
    (Springer, 2019-07-04) Atsiaya, Godfrey O.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Nakhone, Lenah W.; Lagat, Job Kibiwot
    This paper examines factors influencing the choice of response strategies and the actual strategies smallholder farmers use to respond to the effects of climate variability in transitional climatic zones of Africa, specifically Laikipia West Sub-County in Kenya. Data for this study were collected from 392 randomly selected smallholder farmers, using a structured questionnaire. The study used principal component analysis to group together related strategies that farmers used to respond to the effects of climate variability, which resulted into seven groups of responses. Majority of farmers at 97.5%, 85% and 74.1%, respectively, used cultural practices, diversification practices and risk reduction practices. Intensification practices followed by 69.3% while terraces crop and herd management and new breeds were the least adopted at 27%, 13.2% and 9%, respectively. Multivariate probit model was then used to examine the factors influencing smallholder farmers’ choice of response strategies to effects of climate change. The results indicated that access to weather information had a strong effect on use of risk management strategies at 74% and intensification strategies at 49%. Increase in level of education and exclusive dependence on agriculture increased the probability of introducing new breeds by 30% and 53%, respectively, while access to extension services increased use of terraces by 42%. Strong local institutions that facilitate access to information and credit are likely to initiate changes in key household characteristics, which positively affect response to effects of climate variability. Policies should aim to strengthen local institutions that enhance access to information and credit services. There is need for investment in the provision of affordable and quality education, relevant demand-driven extension services that provide localized response solutions.
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    Environmental Degradation’s Effect on the Gains Made in SDG6
    (Springer International Publishing, 2021-02-23) Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora
    Water is a vital limited resource for humanexistence, and the availability of adequate andsafe water ties strongly with the sustainabledevelopment concept. In the last 100 years, thedemand for water has increased six times andcontinues to grow at an annual rate of 1%(WWAP 2018). Sustainable Development Goal 6sets out to ensure availability and sustainablemanagement of water and sanitation for all.Water connects us all and is embedded in almostall the other SDGs, particularly those dealing withfood, energy, and the environment. It links theweb of the 17 SDGs and their 169 targets. Nolonger can water be addressed as a separate ele-ment in isolation from the other goals. But thisinterconnectedness has important implications. Itmeans that the Water Goal will only be achieved ifthe other goals are attained, and in turn, that otherSDGs will only be achieved if the water goal isattained (Ait-Kadi 2016).
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    Risk of Environmental Chemical Contaminants Associated with Animal Feeding in Peri Urban Areas of Kisumu Town
    (Excellent Publishers, 2022-05-10) Inyagwa, Charles Muleke; Orengo, Kenneth; Amanya, Price; Mdachi, Raymond
    The objective of this study was to determine, quantify and disseminate the level of environmental chemical contaminants in the topsoil, water, pasture, milk, blood, feaces, kidney, and adipose tissues from cattle reared in peri-urban slum of Kisumu County. Various samples were collected from Mamboleo, Nyalenda and Otonglo in Kisumu County in the months of April and August 2019 respectively to determine possible seasonal or environmental variability of contaminants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to identify and quantify the level of toxic heavy metals and the results were compared to WHO food safety limits.Flotation method was used to determine Helminth’s infections. Viable bacterial cell counts were determined using the Spread-Plate method. The heavy metals analyzed were: Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As) and Copper (Cu). One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test was used to determine significant difference in the mean level of heavy metals. There were variations in mean heavy concentration levels between the two visits (p<0.05). Helminthosis was prevalent (59.5%) and total Fecal Egg Count (FEC) varied across samples. Study findings show varying heavy metal concentration levels which exceed WHO/FAO food safety limits implying livestock kept in peri-urban setting of Kisumu town are at a risk of ingest contaminated pasture, threatening food safety among consumers. This study recommends policies aimed at mitigating pollution from chemical contaminants and other anthropogenic activities and farmer sensitization on better farming system with limited risks on food safety and animal-human food chain.
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    A Review of Toxic Metals and Hazardous Organics in Wood Treatment Sites and Their Etiological Implications
    (Journal of Chemical Reviews, 2022-02-07) Miranji, Edwin K.; Kipkemboi, Pius K.; Kibet, Joshua K.
    Increased natural and human activities over the last century have led to excess levels of inorganic and organic pollutants into the environment and natural ecosystems. This review critically examines heavy metal and organic pollutants' role in wood treatment sites and their etiological consequences. These pollutants are not only recalcitrant but also tenacious to degradation under ordinary conditions. Although some heavy metals are essential to human health, they are toxic at elevated concentrations. Heavy metals feature carcinogenic properties and cause serious health risks to live systems and the environment because of their bio-accumulative, non-degenerative, and refractory characteristics. On the other hand, organic pollutants are readily introduced into the ecosystem from irresponsible use of detergents, volatile organic compounds, paints, pesticides, and wood preservatives. During the wood treatment process, various chemicals are used to enhance durability. Nevertheless, the use of wood preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) potentially induces pollutants considered detrimental to human health and the ecological environment. Remediation of wood treatment sites using phytomanagement strategies and nanotechnologies has been presented in this review. Therefore, some challenges and recommendations for further research and applications are herein presented.
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    Long-distance gene flow in Acacia senegal: Hope for disturbed and fragmented populations
    (Wiley, 2023-07-12) Omondi, Stephen F.; Githae, Eunice W.; Khasa, Damase P.
    Even though pollen and seed dispersals are some of the important factors that determine tree species survival across landscapes, gene dispersal data of important tropical dryland tree species such as Acacia senegal that are undergoing various population disturbances remain scarce. Understanding patterns of gene dispersal in these ecosystems is important for conservation, landscape restoration and tree improvement. We investigated pollen and seed mediated gene flow in two A. senegal populations of contrasting state (less disturbed and heavily disturbed) using nine microsatellites and 128 genotyping-by-sequencing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) multilocus genotypes of two growth stages (juvenile and adult trees) and their spatial locations. We performed parentage assignments using likelihood approach and undertook spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses for the two growth stages through correlation among kinship coefficients and geographical distances between pair of individuals. The SNPs showed higher resolving power and assignment rates than microsatellites; however, a combination of the two marker-types improved the assignment rate and provided robust parentage assessments. We found evidence of long-distance (up to 210 m) pollination events for both populations; however, the majority of seed dispersal was found closer to the putative maternal parent. On average, parentage analysis showed high amounts of pollen (40%) and seed (20%) immigration in both populations. Significant positive SGS was found only for the adult cohorts in the less disturbed population for distance classes 20 and 40 m, indicating historical short-distance seed dispersals. Our results suggest long-distance gene flow within the species and we recommend conservation of remnant and isolated populations or individual trees to promote genetic connectivity.
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    Biological control of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål)
    (CABI Reviews, 2021-03-06) Githae, Eunice W.; Kuria, Erick K.
    Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål) is one of the most serious agricultural pests in the world due to its voracity, speed of reproduction, and range of flight. We discuss the current state of knowledge on its biological control using microorganisms and botanical extracts. Metarhizium flavoviride was among the first fungus to be recognized as a bio-control agent against desert locust in the laboratory and field conditions. Nevertheless, its oil formulation adversely affected non-target organisms, hence led to further research on other microorganisms. Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (syn. Metarhizium acridum) is an environmentally safer bio-pesticide that has no measurable impact on non-target organisms. However, there are various shortcomings associated with its use in desert locust control as highlighted in this review. Bacterial pathogens studied were from species of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. Botanical extracts of 27 plant species were tested against the locust but showed varied results. Azadirachta indica and Melia volkensii were the most studied plant species, both belonging to family Meliaceae, which is known to have biologically active limonoids. Out of the 20 plant families identified, Apiaceae was the most represented with a frequency of 21%. However, only crude botanical extracts were used and therefore, the active ingredients against desert locust were not identified. Through a comprehensive research, an integrated pest management strategy that incorporates these bio-controls would be a realistic option to control desert locust infestations.
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    Status of Opuntia invasions in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya.
    (CABI Reviews, 2018) Githae, E. W.
    Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the leading threats to biodiversity, food security and human well-being. Opuntia (prickly pear cactus) is one of the most widespread and naturalized in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya, with extreme effects on rural livelihoods and the environment. However, comprehensive information on the status of invasion in the country is lacking, which is crucial for developing strategies for prevention and management. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of the interacting factors that influence its invasion in Kenya in terms of species diversity, pathways of introduction, negative impacts and the effectiveness of regulations and control measures. Seven invasive species of Opuntia are present in the country with the most abundant (O. stricta) being under biocontrol trial. These species have the same habitat preferences, physiological traits, negative impacts, introduction pathways and management options. Invasion is mainly attributed to changes in land use and consequent land degradation. Introduction pathways are largely intentional for ornamental purposes but unintentional at a local scale through escape from gardens and natural dispersal. The most applied methods of managing Opuntia are mechanical and chemical methods that are unsustainable and labour-intensive at large scale. Effective policies are therefore needed to prevent an increase in the significant negative impacts caused by IAS including those that have a limited distribution.
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    The Role of Selected Environmental Factors on the Regeneration of (Ocotea usambarensis ) in Mount Kenya Forest, Kenya
    (International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch, 2018-08) E., Githae; G. M, Nduru; A. M., Magana; J. N, Rithaa
    Despites the propagation efforts, density of Ocotea usambarensis has continued to diminish in the southern slopes of Mount Kenya. The species which is native in the montane forest is seldom on farm and found as remnant species. The concerns on the role of environmental factors and how they influence regeneration of Ocotea usambarensis have been sidelined resulting to lack of adequate information that would be required for modeling how to reestablish Ocotea usambarensis. This study therefore examined the role of Rainfall, Humidity, Temperature, wind speed and soil characteristics on regeneration of Ocotea usambarensis. The study was conducted in the southern slopes of Mount Kenya forest. Data on environmental factors, regeneration status and species diversity were analyzed using regression, Pearson Correlation, Shannon- Wiener (H ) Index and Simpson (D) Index. The regeneration status was “J” shaped with mature trees more than regenerants. The relationship was strong (R2 = 78%) between humidity and rainfall (P < 0.05) while for temperature and wind speed were insignificant. The correlation between soil compositions varied significantly (P< 0.05). The soil pH positively correlated with soil nutrients while Cation exchanges capacity negatively correlated with potassium and silicon. It was observed that Diospyros abyssinica was growing in close association with O. usambarensis playing the role of nurse species. With the absence of seedlings in most of the sites and the limiting environmental factors, promotion of vegetative propagation and enrichment planting would enhance conservation and restoration of the species in Mt. Kenya forest. The high levels of soil nutrients and Cation exchange capacity in forest soils indicated the need to maintain them high on farm for optimal growth rate. Enhancing optimal environmental conditions for growth would enhance conservation and restoration of the Ocotea usambarensis
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    Quantitative variation in seeds, seedling growth and biomass among Acacia senegal (L) Willd. provenances in Kenya
    (Wiley, 2014-10-14) Omondi, Stephen Fredrick; Githae, Eunice Wamuyu; Ochieng, John Otieno
    Conventionally, local seed sources are normally believed to perform better than introduced materials. However, studies show possibility of contrary results with many species such as Acacia senegal. The species is an economically and ecologically important tree of arid and semi-arid lands of sub-Saharan Africa. It produces gum arabic, used in land reclamation and agroforestry production. The species is however underutilized in Kenya due to lack of information on growth performance of different seed sources. Glasshouse provenance trial using seeds and soils from seven provenances in Kenya were used to evaluate interactions between seed sources and soils on growth and biomass. Seedling growth was assessed for 12 weeks in a randomized complete block design. Seed length, width, thickness and weight were measured. Seedlings height, root collar diameter, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and biomass were assessed and data subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. No significant interaction between seed provenance and soils were evident; however, some provenances performed better across all the soils. Significant heritability and relationship between growth and environmental factors are reported. Overall, Ntumburi and Ngarendare provenances showed superior growth and plasticity. These provenances can be used tentatively as seed sources; however, field trials are recommended.
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    A botanical inventory and diversity assessment of Mt. Marsabit forest, a sub-humid montane forest on the arid lands of northern Kenya
    (Wiley, 2007) Githae, E. W.; Chuah-Petiot, M.; Mworia, J. K.; Odee, D. W.
    A botanical inventory and diversity of trees, shrubs (≥5 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), herbs,climbers and lianas was assessed in plots (154) of 20 × 5 m in Mt. Marsabit forest, northern Kenya. Werecorded 52 species of trees and shrubs, twelve species of herbs and six species of climbers and lianas.They belonged to 35 families and 64 genera. Rubiaceae was the richest family with nine species followedby Euphorbiaceae (six), Oleaceae (five), Rutaceae (four), Capparaceae, Labiatae and Leguminosae (threeeach). The rest of the families were represented by one or two species. Rinorea convallarioides (Bak.f.)Eyles ssp. marsabitensis Grey-Wilson (Violaceae), an endemic species, and Drypetes gerrardii Hutch.(Euphorbiaceae), were the two most important species, accounting for more than third of the combinedimportance value. Species diversity indices were 2.735 (Shannon–Wiener), 0.88 (Simpson's) and 0.296(Evenness). There was a strong evidence of disturbance arising from anthropogenic and wildlife foragingactivities. This inventory has affirmed Mt. Marsabit forest as a unique habitat for several endemic, rare,threatened or vulnerable plant species, which should be conserved.
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    Nitrogen Fixation by Natural Populations of Acacia Senegal in the Drylands of Kenya Using 15 N Natural Abundance
    (Taylor & Francis, 2013-03-05) Githae, Eunice; Gachene, Charles; Omondi, Stephen
    This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
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    Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties Of Sources of Water In Narok North Sub- County, Kenya
    (International Science Community Association, 2015) Ndubi D. 1, Oyaro N. 2, Githae E.3 and Afullo. A.4
    A study was conducted in Narok north sub-county, Kenya to analyze physico-chemical properties of water in various water sources in dry and wet season to determine water quality for domestic use. Properties analyzed included pH, temperature, DO, BOD, TDS, TSS and total hardness. The results indicated that most parameters fell within the accepted range according to WHO except for the BOD which indicated the presence of microorganisms and hence the water is not fit for human use unless treated prior to consumption.
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    Ethnobotanical and vegetation survey of kiango’mbe and Kianjiru Hill Forests In Embu County, Kenya
    (International Scholars Journals, 2015) Waiganjo; Githae; Warui
    Ethnobotanical study and vegetation survey was carried out in Kiang’ombe and Kianjiru hill forests of Embu County to evaluate the indigenous knowledge relevant to malaria cause, diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as to establish the hills’ medicinal plants species diversity. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to gather ethnobotanical information while trees with diameter at breast height ≥5 cm, shrubs and herbs were sampled by use of 20×20, 5×5 and 1×1 m plots respectively. Malaria symptoms mentioned in this study were in concurrent with the widely acceptable ones and they included: headache, vomiting, loss of appetite, joint pains and fever. Mosquito was recognized as the main malaria vector. Fifty six species belonging to 31 families were documented from the ethnobotanical study. Achyrothalamus marginatus, Dombeya rotundifolia, Monanthotaxis schweinfurthii and Premna resinosa were documented for the first time in this study indicating high endemism. Barks, roots, trees and shrubs were the most commonly harvested parts and growth forms respectively. Charcoal burning, timber harvesting, grazing and forest fires were observed. Kianjiru had significantly (P≤0.001) higher diversity index (H’=2.92) than Kiango’mbe (H’=2.63). The two hill forests are major sources of medicinal plants and therefore the need to conserve them.