Intergrated Water Resources Management

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    Some aspects of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983) fishery assessment and influence of selected water quality parameters in the hot springs of Lorwai Swamp, Baringo, Kenya
    (Egerton University, 2019-12-05) Adamba, Stephanie Wangare Kamau
    Water quality has been documented to affect the biology and well-being of fish. This study therefore investigated some aspects of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983) fishery assessment and the influence of selected water quality parameters in two hot springs draining into Lorwai Swamp; Lake Bogoria Spa spring and Chelaba spring between the months of July and August, 2018. A total of 445 fish were collected; 244 from Lake Bogoria Spa spring and 201 from Chelaba spring using a seine net. Length Weight Relationship (LWR) was determined using Le Cren’s equation; W=aTLb and Fulton’s condition factor (k) determined using Ricker’s equation; 100W/L3. LWR results indicated an isometric growth for fish from both springs. The mean (± SD) k values for fish in Lake Bogoria Spa spring were 2.02±0.25 for the males, 2.02±0.27 for the females and 2.00±0.26 for both sexes. In Chelaba spring, the mean k values were 2.03±0.21 for the males, 1.97±0.25 for the females and 2.00±0.23 for both sexes. These values indicated that the fish in these hot springs are in a very good condition and healthy status with k values above 1. Some of the selected water quality parameters indicated a positive correlation with the length, weight and Fulton’s condition factor of O. n. baringoensis in the two hot springs.
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    Economic efficiency of water use in the small scale irrigation systems used in vegetables production in Koulikoro and Mopti regions, Mali
    (The Society of Agricultural Professionals, 2018-07-27) Abdoulah Mamary, Kane; Langat, Jackson; Lagat, Prof; TEME, Pr; Wamuyu, Samuel; SIJALI, Vincent
    Malian households depend, in majority, on rain-fed agriculture for their food production. Overreliance on rain-fed agriculture limits the production output due to unreliable rainfall in the country. To mitigate this, the government has invested in rehabilitation of irrigation schemes to reduce dependence on rainfall. Through appropriate irrigation technologies and improved agronomic management practices agricultural productivity will be increased. This study determines the contribution of different irrigation systems to produce vegetables on household welfare in rural communities. The objective of the study was to contribute to improved livelihood of smallholder farmers in rural areas by use of irrigation systems in vegetables production. Three localities corresponding to two specific climatic regions favorable to vegetable crops production in Mali (Baguineda, Kati, Koulikoro region and Mopti region) was the study area. This study was guided by the production theory. Primary data was collected from 273 farmers selected proportionately from four wards (Fanafiecoura and Tieman, in Koulikoro region and Mopti and Dialango, in Mopti region) using face-to-face interviews. Secondary data from literature reviews was also used. Descriptive statistics and DEA functions were used for analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Stata and Excel programs were used for analysis. This study found that the irrigation systems as used in production of the three main crops to be characterized by inefficiency. Drip and sprinkling irrigation systems was relatively more economically efficient as compared with Californian system. The use of drip, sprinkling and Californian irrigation systems lead to greater benefits as compared to costs. The excess benefit (compared to costs) is realized more with drip followed by sprinkling and the third being California irrigation system. This study recommends more training and capacity building to the farmers in the study area with an aim of reducing their levels of inefficiencies in horticultural crop production. Farmers should be supported to adopt the use of drip, sprinkling and Californian irrigation systems which lead to greater benefits as compared to costs. Drip, sprinkling and Californian irrigation systems present a good opportunity for superior technical efficiency in vegetable production. These irrigation technologies should be promoted.
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    Development of a non-linear integrated drought index (NDI) for managing drought and water resources forecasting in the upper Tana river basin-Kenya
    (2020) Wambua, Raphael M.
    This article uses the non-linear integrated drought index (NDI) for managing drought and water resources forecasting in a tropical river basin. The NDI was formulated using principal component analysis (PCA). The NDI used hydro-meteorological data and forecasted using recursive multi-step neural networks. In this article, drought forecasting and projection is adopted for planning ahead for mitigation and for the adaptation of adverse effects of droughts and food insecurity in the river basin. Results that forecasting ability of NDI model using ANNs decreased with increase in lead time. The formulated NDI as a tool for projecting into the future.
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    Modeling climate variability influence on river regime in upper Njoro catchment, Kenya
    (Science Publishing Group, 2020-10-13) Amisi, Edwin O.; Kundu, Peter M.; Wambua, Raphael M.
    To establish the effect of climate variability on annual discharge in Upper Njoro Catchment, hybrid models were developed by coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool and Artificial Neural Networks. Daily surface runoff, lateral flow, and groundwater flow were first simulated with SWAT for the period (1978-1987) using climate variables from Egerton University weather station and LULC of 1978. The daily hydrologic variables simulated without calibration and validation of SWAT and observed discharge data were then used for ANN training, which led to the creation of discharge generation hybrid models for the dry, wet and wetter seasons. SWAT_ANN models generated discharges were compared with observed data and the performance rating were achieved at R2 (0.94, 0.91, 0.92) and NSE (0.89, 0.87, 0.87) for DJFM, AMJJ, and ASON seasons respectively. SUFI-2 algorithm in SWAT-CUP was run separately to compare the performance of SWAT with that of SWAT_ANN. SWAT-CUP sensitivity analysis revealed satisfactory values of both the p-factor (0.61) and the r-factor (0.69). Calibration and validation of monthly streamflow were realized at R2 (0.86 and 0.78) and NSE (0.83 and 0.74). The results showed that coupling SWAT and ANN improved flow prediction. Further, the potential of the SWAT_ANN modeling approach to separate the influence of climate variability on river regime from the effect of LULC was evaluated by comparing trends in the differences between observed and SWAT_ANN simulated monthly streamflow with trends of the quantified LULC changes. The findings provided sufficient evidence that the SWAT_ANN modeling approach was reliable and could also be applied to detect changes in LULC.
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    Estimating Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Idf Curves For A Tropical River Basin
    (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS, 2019-04-10) Raphael Muli Wambua
    Characterization of rainfall based on Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves is crucial in water resources engineering. IDF curves are used in management of hydraulic structures within a river basin. IDF curves for tropical river basins are still scanty. In this research, characterization of rainfall was achieved by developing the IDF curves for Upper Tana River basin using data from eight meteorological stations. Monthly rainfall quantities were first ranked in descending order. The corresponding return period for the data series was determined using Weibull method. An empirical function for IDF curves was then formulated using regression analysis. The IDF curves for different rainfall intensities that correspond to return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 years and rainfall duration ranging from 1 to 12 hours were generated using the empirical function. The IDF curves are recommended for use as decision support tool in water resource systems within the basin.
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    Longitudinal trends in macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in a high-altitude tropical stream (a case study of Gura River)
    (Egerton University, 2021-08-31) Benjamin, Joshua
    Functional feeding groups (FFGs) classification of aquatic macroinvertebrates is an important tool that enhance the knowledge of trophic dynamics in tropical streams by assigning the benthic community into trophic guilds.The current study aimed at determining the longitudinal trends in macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in Gura River. Macroinvertebrates were collected between November and December 2018 in seven sites along the Gura River from an altitude of 2977 to 1547 m a.s.l. At the same time, selected physical chemical variable were measured in situ at every site. Dissolved oxygen concentration (mgL-1), water temperature (oC), electrical conductivity (µScm-1), pH and turbidity (NTU) had a significant difference among the sites (p <0.05). Most of the nitrates and phosphate nutrients had a significant difference among sampled sites (p <0.05) except NO2-N as demonstrated by analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA, F (6,14) = 2, p=0.085).A total of 4016 macroinvertebrates specimen were collected belonging to 9 orders and 28 families and assigned into 5 respective FFGs. Overall, Scrapers, dominated by Heptageniidae (Afronurus) had the high relative proportion of FFGs in all the sites with a proportion of 42%. Shredders and Predators were the least represented functional feeding groups with proportions of 6% and 3% respectively. This study is crucial in the Gura River because FFGs can be used as an indicator of aquatic ecosystems change in case there is alteration of ecosystem function due to environmental variables.
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    SIMULATION OF CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY AND YIELD RESPONSE OF POTATOES UNDER SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING THE AQUACROP MODEL | Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment
    (Journal of Engineering In Agriculture And The Environment, 2023-05-20)
    The need for increased food production by applying low water quantity is pausing more challenges to farmers. The production of Irish Potatoes in Kenya in arid and semi-arid areas is challenging for most farmers due to low yields. A field experiment was conducted at Egerton University during the 2021-2022 dry season. The effect of deficit subsurface drip Irrigation allied with superabsorbent polymer soil amendment on growth parameters and yield of potatoes was evaluated. Twelve treatments composed of three water application levels 70%IL, 85%IL,100%IL and four super absorbent polymer (SAP) application rates No SAP, 6 kg/ha, 10 kg/ha, and 14kg/ha laid in factorial experimental design were applied in December 2021 to May 202 season. Irrigation was undertaken when the allowable water depletion reached 50%. The AquaCrop model was applied to predict soil water content, biomass, canopy cover, dry yield, and water productivity (WP). The 100% water application level with 0kg/ha SAP was used in model calibration, whereas the remaining was used to validate the model. The model simulated compared with observed canopy cover, biomass and WP produced a good performance with R2 range of 0.86 to 0.98, root mean square error (RMSE) of 10.6%, NSE of 0.9, and Wilmot's degree of agreement of 0.98. However, the model underestimated the water content due to the application of SAP in the soil. The findings indicated that the combined effect of SAP and subsurface drip resulted in increased yield in deficit water application. The calibrated model was successfully applied in simulating WP and yield response of the three water treatments for No SAP, 6 kg/ha SAP, 10 kg/ha SAP, and 14 kg/ha SAP. 
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    Performance of Mwitemania Bean Under the Influence of Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobium Inoculant, Water Hyacinth Composts and DAP Fertilizer in a Field Infested with Aphis fabae and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
    (Springer, 2021-11-10) Naluyange, Victoria; Ochieno, Dennis M. W.; Wandahwa, Philip; Maingi, John M.; Ombori, Omwoyo; Mukaminega, Dative; Amoding, Alice; Odendo, Martins; Muoma, John V. O.
    The production of beans in the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa has been declining while the water hyacinth has been invasively spreading in the lake. These are understood to be effects of nitrogen (N) loss among other nutrients from land and their deposition into the lake resulting in eutrophication. To mitigate these problems, bean seeds are being inoculated with Rhizobium inoculants to fix nitrogen as an alternative to fertilizers in maintaining soil nitrogen; while water hyacinth biomass is processed into composts to enrich soil fertility. The present study evaluates the growth and yield of Rhizobium inoculated seeds when grown without fertilizer (control), with diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), or supplied with water hyacinth composts containing cattle manure culture (H + CMC) or effective microbes (H + EM). Infestations by the black bean aphid Aphis fabae and the anthracnose disease infestations caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on these bean plants were also assessed. Root nodulation was found to be higher in Rhizobium inoculated plants grown with H + EM (20 nodules) and those without fertilizer (19 nodules) when compared to controls (7 nodules). In DAP treated plants, the germination percentage was low, growth rate slow, with few root nodules, flowers and pods, resulting in reduced yield. The differences between treatments for anthracnose disease incidence were similar to those of root nodules; while aphid populations did not vary between the treatments. The results of the present study do not offer a reliable basis for the application of water hyacinth composts and Rhizobium in improving the yields of Mwitemania beans. This is very likely because the soils were relatively fertile; N-fixation by Rhizobium is more efficient in unfertile soils. Better results may be achieved in soils of low fertility especially those deficient in nitrogen, hence conducive for N-fixation.
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    Production of Organic Compost from Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) in the Lake Victoria Basin: A Lake Victoria Research Initiative (VicRes)
    (Research & Reviews, 2016-12-14) John, Muoma
    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) supports one of the poorest and most populous rural populations in the East Africa region. The dipping fish population has forced the community around the Lake Victoria to turn to farming for food crops to meet its daily food demands. Chemical fertilizer which is readily available has been the alternative source of improving soil condition which has led to eutrophication of the lake waters causing the temperature to rise in the process affecting most freshwater animals and plants. This process also encourages large volumes of algae and other biomass such as water hyacinth to flourish. The use of the algae bloom and water hyacinth to provide an alternative ecologically friendly and sustainable source of soil nutrients is imperative. This study utilized water hyacinth (H) to develop compost as a potential soil improvement source. Using four different composting treatments of water hyacinth biomass (H only control, H+ cattle manure, H+EM, H+ Molasses) there was no significant difference in the assessed nutrients at P<0.05 in the various treatment. There was though a higher increase in P at a non-significant level at P<0.05 in H control, H+ cattle manure, H+EM compared with the H+ Molasses treatment. H+ Cattle Manure and H control treatment also generated high K levels and relative to the other treatments. Overall the project exhibited high level of P, N and exchangeable K in the four hyacinth compost treatment with an alkaline pH of between 7.38-8.13. The project also determined the optimal composting conditions with highest temperature of about 38oC observed at day 5 to 20 from the onset of the decomposition all the treatments. The temperature stabilized at about 24oC till the 58th day. Resulting in increase of essential elements in Water Hyacinth Organic compost makes it an important source for control of acidic soil pH and soil nutrient replenisher.
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    Nutritional yield and nutritional water productivity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under varying irrigation water regimes
    (Water Sa, 2020-08-12) Kanda, Edwin Kimutai; Senzanje, Aidan; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Mubanga, Shadrack Chisenga
    There is a need to mainstream traditional crops in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to tackle food and nutritional insecurity through incorporating  nutritional quality into crop water productivity, in the wider context of the water–food–nutrition–health nexus. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of irrigation water regimes on the nutritional yield (NY) and nutritional water productivity (NWP) of cowpea under Moistube irrigation (MTI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). We hypothesized that NY and NWP of cowpea were not different under MTI and SDI and that deficit irrigation improved NWP. The experiment was laid as a split-plot design arranged in randomized complete blocks, replicated 3 times, with 3 irrigation water regimes: 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), 70% of ETc, and 40% of ETc. Irrigation type and water regime did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the nutritional quality of cowpea. Similarly, NWP of crude fat (28.20–39.20 g∙m-3), ash (47.20–50.70 g∙m-3) and crude fibre (30.70–48.10 g∙m-3) did not vary significantly. However, protein and carbohydrate NWP showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across irrigation water regimes and irrigation type. The highest protein NWP (276.20 g∙m-3) was attained under MTI at 100% ETc, which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than SDI (237.1 g∙m-3) and MTI (189.8 g∙m-3) at 40% ETc. Cowpea is suited for production in water-scarce environments; however, there are trade-offs with carbohydrate NWP. This should not be of concern as often diets are already energy-dense but lacking in other micronutrients. Keywords: deficit irrigation nutritional quality proximate composition subsurface irrigation traditional legume
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    Morphological Assessment and Effectiveness of Indigenous Rhizobia Isolates that Nodulate P. vulgaris in Water Hyacinth Compost Testing Field in Lake Victoria Basin
    (SCIENCEDOMAIN, 2013-12-05) Muthini, Morris; Maingi, John M.; Muoma, John O.; Amoding, Alice; Mukaminega, Dative; Osoro, Newton; Mgutu, Allan; Ombori, Omwoyo
    Aims: The study was aimed at isolating, identifying and assessing the effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia nodulating P. vulgaris in Lake Victoria Basin (LVB).Study Design: Randomized complete block design.Place and Duration of Study: Soil and nodule samples were collected from Kisumu (Kenya); Kabanyolo (Uganda) and Nyabarongo (Rwanda). Field experiments: Kisumu (Kenya). Lab and greenhouse experiments: Department of Plant and Microbial Sciences Kenyatta University (Kenya) and Makerere University (Uganda). Research was carried out between January 2012 and April 2013.Methodology: Rhizobia were isolated from nodules obtained from P. vulgaris (rose coco variety) plants planted in the LVB water hyacinth compost trial fields and whole soil trapping experiments in the greenhouse using soil obtained from the LVB. The isolates were characterized using morphological features. Isolates from each group were used in authentication using the infection technique.Results: One hundred and twenty eight isolates were obtained from the trapping experiments and placed into nine groups based on their morphological characteristics. Four hundred and seventy two isolates were obtained from the nodules of the P. vulgaris grown in soils amended with water hyacinth compost and were placed into sixteen groups. The isolates varied in their morphological characteristics. There was a significant difference in the infectiveness and effectiveness of the representative rhizobia isolates.Conclusion: The studies revealed that rhizobia isolates from Lake Victoria are different morphologically. Authentication experiments, confirmed that the majority of the isolates were rhizobia due to their ability to infect the host plant P. vulgaris. All representative isolates varied in their ability to infect and fix nitrogen. Isolates that are more effective compared to the commercial Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseolistrain 446 were isolated in this study. The effective indigenous rhizobia have therefore the potential of being sources of inocula for P. vulgaris.
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    Response of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars to Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) Compost in Kisumu, Kenya along the Lake Victoria Basin
    (Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 2018-09-06) Kawaka, Fanuel; Ombori, Omwoyo; Maingi, John M.; Amoding, Alice; Mukaminega, Dative; Muoma, John
    Aims: This study aimed at enhancing common bean production among the small holder farmers along the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya through the use of water hyacinth compost.Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design with a split-plot structure with three replications. The bean cultivars formed the main plots while fertilizers formed the sub-plots.Place and Duration of Study: Field trials were conducted on small holder farms in Kisumu, Lake Victoria basin during the short and long rains in 2012/2013.Methodology: Fresh water hyacinth weeds were cut into smaller pieces and left to completely dry in the sun and allowed to decompose naturally for 45 days. The treatments consisted of control (no fertilizer), water hyacinth compost and diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer (DAP). The fertilizers were applied at the rate of 46 kg ha-1 of DAP or 8 T ha-1 of compost along the rows and thoroughly mixed within the top 15 cm of soil to avoid direct contact with the seeds or the rhizobia inocula.Results: Water hyacinth compost significantly (P<0.05) increased nodulation and improved yield while diammonium phosphate also enhanced yield but suppressed nodulation of the beans. Other agronomic characteristics such as plant height, number of flowers and pods of beans were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced with the application of either compost or diammonium phosphate.Conclusion: Application of water hyacinth compost has the potential for use as an alternative to expensive inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers in restoring soil fertility and improving bean crop productivity in Kenya.
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    Modelling soil water distribution under Moistube irrigation for cowpea (VIGNA unguiculata (L.) Walp.) crop*
    (Wiley, 2020-12-01) Kanda, Edwin Kimutai; Senzanje, Aidan; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe
    Moistube irrigation (MTI) is a type of technology which uses a semipermeable membrane to emit water continuously in response to soil water potential and applied pressure. Soil water dynamics under MTI incorporating plant water uptake have not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the soil water distribution under MTI, using cowpea as a reference crop. The effect of Moistube placement depth on the soil water dynamics under MTI was also determined. The experiment was carried out in tunnels with MTI and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as a control. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model was calibrated and thereafter used to simulate soil water dynamics for different placement depths. The soil water content above the Moistube/drip lateral was higher under SDI than MTI, while the lateral movement of water was similar for both irrigation types. The simulated soil water contents closely matched (coefficient of determination [R2] ≥ 0.57, root mean square error [RMSE] ≤ 0.029 cm3 cm−3, normalized root mean square error [NRMSE] ≤ 14.7% and efficiency [EF] ≥ 0.20) the observed values for both MTI and SDI. This showed that HYDRUS 2D/3D could be used to simulate water dynamics of irrigated cowpea. There was no significant difference (p > .05) between the root water uptake (RWU) in SDI and MTI. The Moistube placement depth did not significantly affect (p > .05) the RWU in loam soil but increased with increased placement depth in clay soil. The optimum placement depth of Moistube laterals for cowpea was 15 cm in loam and 20 cm in clay. This study forms the basis for design of MTI in terms of optimum placement depths for cowpea grown in loam and clay soils.RėsumėL'irrigation par tuyau poreux (MTI) est un type de technologie qui utilise une membrane semi‑perméable pour émettre de l'eau en continu en réponse au potentiel hydrique du sol et à la pression appliquée. La dynamique de l'eau dans le sol sous MTI intégrant l'absorption d'eau des plantes n'a pas été étudiée. Par conséquent, cette étude visait à déterminer la distribution de l'eau dans le sol sous irrigation par tuyau poreux, en utilisant le niébé comme culture de référence. L'effet de la profondeur de positionnement des tubes poreux sur la dynamique de l'eau dans le sol sous MTI a également été déterminé. L'expérience a été réalisée dans des tunnels avec MTI et de l'irrigation goutte à goutte souterraine (SDI) comme contrôle. Le modèle HYDRUS 2D/3D a été calibré puis utilisé pour simuler la dynamique de l'eau dans le sol pour différentes profondeurs de positionnement. La teneur en eau dans le sol au‑dessus du tube poreux/latéral en goutte à goutte était plus élevée sous SDI que MTI, tandis que le mouvement latéral de l'eau était similaire pour les deux types d'irrigation. Les teneurs en eau simulées dans le sol correspondaient étroitement (R2 ≥ 0,57, RMSE ≤ 0,029 cm3 cm−3, NRMSE ≤ 14,7% et EF ≥ 0,20) aux valeurs observées pour le MTI et le SDI. Cela a montré que HYDRUS 2D/3D pouvait être utilisé pour simuler la dynamique de l'eau du niébé irrigué. Il n'y avait pas de différence significative (p > ,05) entre l'absorption d'eau des racines (RWU) dans SDI et MTI. La profondeur de positionnement du tube poreaux n'a pas affecté de manière significative (p > ,05) la RWU dans le sol limoneux mais a augmenté avec l'augmentation de la profondeur de positionnement dans le sol argileux. La profondeur de positionnement optimale des latéraux de tube poreux pour le niébé était de 15 cm dans le limon et de 20 cm dans l'argile. Cette étude constitue la base de la conception du MTI en termes de profondeurs de positionnement optimales pour le niébé cultivé dans des sols de limon et d'argile.
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    Influence of land use/cover on water quality in the River Sironko catchment area, Eastern Uganda.
    (IOSR, 2020-09-17) Turyahabwe, Remigio; Mulinya, Caroline; Shivoga, William Aino
    Ten sampling stations located on RiverSironko catchment area were used to assess the contribution of selected land uses to the nutrients and Physico-chemical water quality levels of river Sironko for a period of six months from November 2019 to April 2020. This was done so as to capture wet and dry seasons. The data was also used to examine whetherland use size, altitude and discharge had an impact on water quality in the catchment area. The catchment area was divided into the upper, middle and lower reaches. Based on visual interpretation of Google Earth map and field observation data, polygons for the reference land use classes of forest, agriculture, sand mining, industrialization, and urbanisation that contributed their run off to the catchment were created using “heads up” digitizing tools in Google Earth program and sizes were calculated. The water quality parameters from land uses were compared with land use size, altitude and discharge usingPearson correlation coefficients generated from STATA Version.14in each of the three reaches to show the magnitude of impacts of land uses. Results indicated that water quality levels in the upper reaches were better than in the middle and lower reaches of the catchment area. Land use size had a significant negative correlation with TDS at p(0.0135) but with significant positive correlation with D.O at p(0.0056) in the middle reaches. In the lower reaches, land use size had a significant correlation with nutrients at p(0.0344 – 0.0015). In the upper reaches, altitude and discharge influenced water quality more than land use size. We recommended that, all homesteads and business establishments must have toilets at least 10m away from the river banks. Key words: E-Coli, protected area, river reaches, land use area.
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    Improving Water Hyacinth-Based Compost for Crop Production
    (Pearl research journals, 2018-01-01) Nakanwagi, Josephine
    ©2018 Pearl Research Journals Improving Water Hyacinth-Based Compost for Crop Production Dennis Beesigamukama1,2*, John Baptist Tumuhairwe2, John Muoma3, John M. Maingi4, Omwoyo Ombori4, Dative Mukaminega5, Josephine Nakanwagi2 and Alice Amoding2 Accepted 12 May,2018 1Department of Crop Production and Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Busitema University, P.O. Box 203, Soroti, Uganda. 2Department of Agricultural Production, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. 3Department of Biological Sciences, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kakamega, Kenya. 4Department of Plant and Microbial Sciences, Kenyatta University, Narobi Kenya. 5Faculty of Applied Sciences, Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Kigali, Rwanda.
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    The Water Act 2002 and The Constitution of Kenya 2010: Coherence and Conflicts Towards Implementation
    (International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2013) Kanda, Edwin; Taragon, John; Kimokoti, Susan; Waweru, Sam
    The water Act 2002 provides for Integrated Water Resources Management along the River Basin that is the best practice worldwide and in accordance with Dublin Principles. Prior to reforms in the water sector, water supply and sanitation and water resources management in Kenya faced huge challenges among them being institutional weaknesses, inadequate funding, conflicts due to overlapping roles and responsibilities of key public sectors in the water Act. The constitution of Kenya 2010 recognizes water and sanitation services as a basic right. Before the enactment of the new constitution, the old constitution did not provide for water provision as basic right. This paper presents an analysis of the water Act in relation to the new constitution of Kenya and the challenges facing its implementation. Ways of harmonizing the water Act with the new constitution are explored. It is imperative to note that the Water Act does not recognize water as a basic right and therefore some sections of the Act have to be amended to conform to the constitution which enshrines it in the Bill of Rights.
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    Groundwater overdraft vulnerability and environmental impact assessment in Arusha
    (Springer, 2006-07-11) Ong’or, Basil T. I.; Cang, Shu Long
    A simple approach is proposed for identifying areas vulnerable to groundwater overdraft. The methodology utilizes GIS techniques to analyze and evaluate controlling factors in areas with little data. The proposed methodology was applied in Arusha. Water demand in Arusha Municipality and its environs has increased to about 5.3% annually since 1999. Groundwater levels have declined. The aquifer hydrogeological variables were evaluated for impact to potential groundwater overdraft by overlay and index techniques. The spatial distribution of overdraft vulnerability was discussed. The northwestern part of Arusha is the most vulnerable to overdraft and possible serious environmental impacts. The Loruvani area has the most potential for aquifer development due to its permeability, high recharge rate, massive aquifer thickness and low drawdown.
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    Groundwater overdraft and the impact of artificial recharge on groundwater quality in a cone of depression, Jining, China
    (taylor and francis, 2009-12-03) Ong'or, Basil T. I.; Cang, Shu Long
    Groundwater overdraft has led to cone of depression formation in Jining City, China. This paper investigates spatial groundwater overdraft severity by an index and Geographic Information System (GIS) method, and impact of artificial recharge on groundwater quality, by a 3-D groundwater flow finite difference numerical model code MODFLOW, and a solute transport model code MT3D. Hydrogeological and anthropogenic factors were evaluated. Groundwater concentration of chloride ions and total hardness (THD) as a result of artificial recharge were evaluated. The hydro-geochemical formation of the aquifer and recharge water quality greatly impact the groundwater quality. The recharge water must be within high groundwater quality standards.
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    Freshwater Aquaculture and Household Performance in Busia County, Kenya
    (African Journal of Empirical Research, 2023-11-15) Miima, Douglas; Mugalavai, Edward; Wakhungu, Jacob
    Aquaculture has become a household source of proteins, taking over the traditional red meat delicacy that promotes food security and livelihood for over 2.5 billion people. This covers approximately 40 percent of the world’s fish production. As the population increases, the demand for fish increases owing to the current deficit. Therefore, the need for freshwater aquaculture is high to meet global demand. Busia County has benefited from internal and external support for household aquaculture practices to address nutrition challenges and livelihoods as well. This study investigated freshwater aquaculture performance in Busia County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design, applying both quantitative and qualitative methods. The target population was 55,608 households in Bunyala and Teso South sub-counties, resulting in a sample size of 384 households. Simple random sampling was used to select the households, while purposive sampling was used to select key informants. Questionnaires, interview schedules, focus group discussion guides, and photography were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0, while qualitative data was analyzed by grouping them into themes and reporting verbatim. Private hatcheries produced the majority of fingerlings, which increased their price for households. Households bought fish feed from the local agrovets, which was not quite affordable to farmers. Extension services were primarily provided in pond management (96.1%; OR = 2.67), record-keeping (92.7%), and fish marketing (77.7%). Private sector hatcheries are the main distributors of fingerlings to farmers, which could have contributed to the higher price of a fingerling while also considering the transportation cost of the precious fingerlings. Pond management, recording keeping, and marketing were the main extension services accorded to households surveyed. Owing to the low investment in hatcheries by the national and county governments of Busia, there is a need to rethink the installation of government hatcheries in all sub-counties for ease of accessibility and affordability in order to promote the sustainability of aquaculture.
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    Water resource management: IWRM strategies for improved water management. A systematic review of case studies of East, West and Southern Africa
    (PLoS One, 2021-05-25) Dirwai, Tinashe Lindel; Kanda, Edwin Kimutai; Senzanje, Aidan; Busari, Toyin Isiaka
    Objective The analytical study systematically reviewed the evidence about the IWRM strategy model. The study analysed the IWRM strategy, policy advances and practical implications it had, since inception on effective water management in East, West and Southern Africa. Methods The study adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) and the scoping literature review approach. The study searched selected databases for peer-reviewed articles, books, and grey literature. DistillerSR software was used for article screening. A constructionist thematic analysis was employed to extract recurring themes amongst the regions. Results The systematic literature review detailed the adoption, policy revisions and emerging policy trends and issues (or considerations) on IWRM in East, West and Southern Africa. Thematic analysis derived four cross-cutting themes that contributed to IWRM strategy implementation and adoption. The identified four themes were donor effect, water scarcity, transboundary water resources, and policy approach. The output further posited questions on the prospects, including whether IWRM has been a success or failure within the African water resource management fraternity.