Water Storage

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    Household Drinking water contamination by Escherichia Coli and prevalence of diarrhoea in children under five years in Baringo County, Kenya. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research.
    (Mohammad Nassar for Researches, 2020-09) Neyole, Edward Masinde
    Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) is widely used as an indicator of microbial water quality. Normally domiciled in human intestines, contamination of drinking water by this bacteria occurs through inappropriate sanitation and poor water handling practices. While some strains of E. Coli are harmless, others are pathogenic and can lead to diarrhoea of varying severity both in children and adults, characterised by abdominal cramps, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea. Diarrhoea remains a major cause of death among children below 5 years. This study evaluated the extent of household drinking water contamination by E. Coli and its relationship to diarrhoea incidences in children <5 years in Mogotio and Marigat sub-counties of the largely semi-arid Baringo county in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was used to randomly select 178 households with children below 5 years and information sought on water sources and diarrheal occurrence. Water samples were collected at the point of use and analysed using the field based Compartment Bag Test (CBT). Findings show a significant relationship between E. Coli presence and diarrhoea in under-fives. Water samples from households using water from surface water sources were more likely to have a higher E. Coli MPN/100ml count compared to those from protected sources. There is need provide improved sources of water in the community and sensitise it on treatment and safe handling of water at point of use.
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    Assessment of rainwater harvesting potential of Rachuonyo North Sub-Catchment in Kenya using the Australian water balance model
    (IWA, 2022-01-29) Odhiambo, Kevin O.; Ong'or, Basil T. Iro; Kanda, Edwin K.
    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is emerging as a promising alternative source of water in sub-Saharan Africa. It can be an alternative source of good-quality water to substitute other freshwater sources, to enable crop production beyond the growing season through supplemental irrigation as well as to improve the environment by minimizing the effect of drought and floods. The Rachuonyo North Sub-County of Kenya experiences low rainfall coupled with high population with limited access to reliable water sources. The study assessed the RWH potential of the Rachuonyo North Sub-Catchment with the aim of providing information on alternative water resources to meet the water demands for agriculture as well as domestic use in the region. The Australian water balance model (AWBM) was used to simulate the RWH potential of the Rachuonyo North Sub-Catchment using the area rainfall, evapotranspiration and river flow data. The calibration and validation of the model were performed with calibration and validation results yielding Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.503 and 1.00, respectively. Research findings indicated that the area has a potential for RWH with runoff harvest of between 104,496 and 43,646,142 m3/month, which can significantly support the residential and irrigation water demands for the area. Policymakers and development agencies in the region should pro-actively put in place measures to promote RWH interventions as a tool for increasing access to water. The methodology in the study is suitable for adaption for rainfall–runoff simulation in other sub-Saharan African regions where data are limiting.
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    The effect of river flow and land use land cover dynamics on reservoir sedimentation in a small ASAL tropical basin in Kenya
    (IJISRT, 2023-05-23) Kasuki, M. M.; Kitheka, Johnson U.; Otieno, Hesbon
    Kalundu reservoir is one of the water reservoirs in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya that has been experiencing periodic siltation since 1950s. Lack of data and information on the hydrological processes and land use practices has limited implementation of localized strategies to minimize sedimentation in the reservoir. The objective of this study was to determine the hydrological influences and land use practices that contributed to sedimentation of Kalundu reservoir in the period between (2000 – 2021). Hydrological datasets were acquired from three sampling stations established at different points along Kalundu River. Landsat imagery were used in the Land use and Land Cover analysis. Hydrological analysis showed that during the short rainy season, the mean river discharge ranged from 0.44- 1.00m3 /day and 0.11-0.50m3 /day during the long rains. Sediment load discharged into the reservoir was more during the short rains (134,028.84m3 )than during the long rains (28,448.87 m3 ) with a Trap Efficiency of 47.73%and 55.91%, respectively. The river discharge showed a significant relationship with TSSC (r=0.69, Pvalue=0.03), turbidity in the river (r=0.68, R2=0.45, pvalue=0.03) and sediment load (r=0.68, R2=0.46, pvalue=0.03). This results implied high sediment load is likely to be observed during high flows. From bathymetric analysis, Kalundu reservoir decreased its storage capacity by 70% from 500,000m3 in 2013 to 149,902m3 in 2021. This implied that 350,098m3 of sediments were deposited within that period at an estimated rate of 65,317 tons/yr or 2,722 tons/km2 /yr. The total surface area of the reservoir decreased by 11% from 48,500m2 in 2013 to 43,200m2 in 2021.In 2021, the mean water depth in the reservoir was 2.1m and the deepest part was 3.5m. The Useful Life Span of the dam was estimated to be about 3 years. LULC analysis showed that croplands and built-up areas increased significantly within a period 20 years (2000-2020). Bareland and abandoned croplands were attributed to soil erosion in the study area leading to sedimentation of Kalundu Dam particularly during short rainy seasons. Poor farming practices, urban land development activities, heavy infrastructural development and clearing of natural vegetation in the sub-basin were strongly attributed to the increased sedimentation of the dam in the period between (2010-2020).
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    Rain Water Harvesting for Enhanced Household Water, Food and Nutritional Security: Case Study of Kitui West, Lower Yatta and Matinyani Districts, Kenya
    (IISTE, 2014) Makau, Wambui; Gitau, Ayub; Mugachia, Joseph; Ocharo, Robinson; Kamau, Hannah; Wambua, Judy M.; Luvai, Allois
    In semi-arid areas of Kenya, over dependence on agriculture, low and unreliable rainfall and high livestock numbers, justify the considerations of rainwater harvesting for agricultural production. A step by step is now taken by the respective government agencies and non-governmental organizations to promote rainwater harvesting, as well as promoting it to the public. This study conducted a focused evaluation of the residents’ experience towards the effectiveness of rainwater harvesting system in the context of minimizing the environmental problems, the benefits associated with rainwater harvesting, the implementation issue in relation to rainwater harvesting and adoption of greenhouse technology as a paradigm shift from open field cultivation. Research was conducted among 387 respondents: 109 in Kitui West, 104 in Matinyani and 124 in Lower Yatta districts of Kitui County, Kenya. The methodology adopted used semi-structured questionnaire survey and the data was analyzed using the SPSS. The study revealed that 56.3 % of the families are female- headed while 43.7% are male headed. Agriculture is a common practice in the study area because 90.4 % of the respondents had above ½ of their lands utilized. However, it is practiced using traditional farm implements such as hoes and simple harvesting implements as affirmed by 46.3 % of the respondents. It was found that water pans are the main sources of water in the area with only 67.2 % able to access it. However, only 55.2 % of the households could access water of above 200 litres on a daily basis and owing to the average family size of 4-6 members in the study area. The use of greenhouse technology is not popular because only 11.3 % of the respondents owned greenhouses while 85.8 % of the respondents said they wanted to own greenhouses. Surprisingly, those who own greenhouse have never made money from this technology.
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    Domestic rainwater harvesting: a case study in Embu County, Kenya
    (Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, 2015-07-31) Gateri, Magdalene W.; Opere, Alfred; Gitau, Wilson; Ngaina, Joshua N.
    This study assessed probable water that could be harvested during rainy seasons over Embu County of Kenya. Monthly rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department while percentage distribution of household by household size, main roofing material, number of rooms in the main dwelling and per capita volume of water required was sourced from Kenya Integrated Household Budget of Survey (KIHBS). Minimum water demand per household was computed based on KIHBS. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 2009 population census was used to determine population and number of occupants in the main dwelling. Embu County receives bimodal rainfall during March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Rainfall is highly variable with 8190 and 7490 litres of harvested water during MAM and OND season respectively expected to last for approximately 43 days (MAM) while 39 days (OND) and thus not sufficient to satisfy minimum water demand levels for Embu population. The total potential harvestable water during MAM and OND accounted for 45.4 % and would go a long way in meeting water demands in the region. Notably, harvestable water was being used to supplement natural sources of water. Therefore, enhanced water harvesting during rainy season could provide an alternate source of domestic water.
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    (Pwani University, 2021-06-08) Owuor, Collins Otieno
    Artificial recharge of groundwater (AGR) has been used in many countries in the world, with different degrees of success, as well as from different sources of water. In Kenya artificial recharge is a novel idea whose methods of implementation and outcomes have not been explored.The study makes an assessment of the viability of carrying out artificial groundwater recharge in coral aquifers from rainfall harvested from roofs.The lack of data has made it necessary to use several aquifer characterization methods to corroborate the estimation of hydraulic conductivity for the study area. These included petrophysical methods, geophysical inversion of vertical electrical sounding data and two recharge experiments. An unconfined aquifer is inferred from the correlation of water rest levels with elevations from Google earth with the implication that the recovery efficiency/recharge viability can be expressed as a function of permeability, rainfall characteristics, surface area of the harvesting roof/hard surface, Hydraulic gradient and zone of aeration where present.Rainfall was used as the source of water for recharge. In order to understand the study area’s rainfall frequency and intensity, derived satellite rainfall, TRMM3B42v7, data-sets was obtained and validated against two rainfall gauges in Kilifi Plantation and Pwani University of the study area. Validation of the rainfall data allowed for the evaluation of rainfall characteristics relevant to the recharge, at a sub-daily temporal scale. This was necessary in determining the viability for artificial groundwater recharge.viThe challenges due to the lack of data with adequate quality and quantity were addressed by the use of open source data and software.The results of the assessments showed that rainfall runoff from roofs can be used for groundwater artificial recharge in the unconfined coral aquifers of Kilifi, with improvement in the quality of groundwater.The improvement in quality and quantity of water is deemed possible due to the aquifers unconfinement and available zone of aeration together with a low hydraulic gradient. The latter allows a longer residence period of groundwater in the aquifer.An evaluation of Kenya’s current legislation that relates to groundwater recharge has offered insights to its shortcomings compared to legislation in other countries, where groundwater artificial recharge is practiced both as a management strategy and for water supply.
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    Determinants of farmers’ knowledge on soil and water conservation technologies in dry zones of Central Highlands, Kenya
    (Journal of Agricultural Extension, 2021) Njenga, Maureen W.; Mugwe, Jayne N.; Mogaka, Hezron R.; Nyabuga, George; Oduor, Nathan; Kiboi, Milka; Ngetich, Felix; Mucheru-Muna, Monicah; Sijali, Isaya; Mugendi, Daniel
    This study ascertained the socioeconomic determinants of farmers’ knowledge on soil and water conservation technologies in Dry zones of Central Highlands of Kenya involving 400 farming households. Results showed that the majority of the farmers had inadequate knowledge on the use and benefits of soil and water conservation technologies. The socio-economic factors that influence knowledge levels of the knowledge-intensive technologies were education level, gender, perceptions on soil fertility, farmer group membership, access to training, farm size, access to credit, number of livestock kept and access to farm equipment. This implies that there is the need to come up with an all-inclusive policy that can be employed in improving farmer’s level of knowledge through the use of more innovative methods of information dissemination. This can be done by strengthening the existing farmer groups, enhancing extension services, and also formulating gender-friendly policies.
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    Communication factors influencing adoption of soil and water conservation technologies in the dry zones of Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya
    (Elsevier, 2021) Njenga, Maureen Wairimu; Mugwe, Jayne Njeri; Mogaka, Hezron; Nyabuga, George; Kiboi, Milka; Ngetich, Felix; Mucheru-Muna, Monicah; Sijali, Isaya; Mugendi, Daniel
    Integrated soil fertility and soil water conservation technologies are possible solutions to the low per capita food production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Nonetheless, the rate of adoption of these technologies by smallholder farmers has stagnated over the years despite being recommended. This has been attributed to the existence of wide communication gaps among researchers, extension agents, and farmers. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the influence of communication factors on the adoption of the selected technologies among smallholder farmers in the drylands of Tharaka-Nithi County. We used a cross-sectional survey design and collected data using an interview schedule from 400 randomly selected farming households. Binary logistic regression was employed for data analysis. Results showed that accessibility of extension agents after introducing the technology significantly influenced the adoption of combined organic and inorganic fertilizers (p = 0.056), mulch (p = 0.051), and Zai pit (p = 0.058). Similarly, practical orientation significantly influenced the adoption of combined organic and inorganic fertilizers (p = 0.001), mulch (p = 0.010), and Zai pit (p = 0.003). Information repetition significantly influenced the adoption of combined organic and inorganic fertilizers, mulch, and Zai pit at p-value 0.003, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively. Training was essential for mulch and Zai pit technologies at (p = 0.030) and (p = 0.001) respectively, while farmer group membership significantly influenced adoption for combined organic and inorganic fertilizers (p = 0.045) and Zai pit (p = 0.057) technologies. Extension agents should increase their interactions with farmers after the introduction of technologies. Equally use of demonstrations should be encouraged during the dissemination of these technologies among the farmers as they enhance the chances of adoption of the technologies.
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    Measurement of Radon Activity Concentration in Underground Water of Bureti Sub-County of Kericho County Kenya
    (2020-10) Rotich Charles K.; Nadir O. Hashim; Chege, Margaret W.; Catherine
    The activity concentration of radon in underground water of Bureti sub-county was measured using liquid scintillating counter device. The average radon activity concentration in all the water samples was 12.41 Bql−1. The maximum and minimum activity concentrations of radon were 22.5 and 4.57 Bql−1, respectively. In total, 53% of the total samples analysed had radon concentration levels above the US Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limit of 11.1 Bql−1. The annual dose received by an individual as a result of waterborne radon was determined according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation reports and was found to be 33.23 μSvy−1. All the samples recorded a value