Land Policies

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    Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Policy Framework on Solid Waste Management in Nairobi, Kenya
    (University of Nairobi, Kenya, 2019) Ogutu, Florence A.
    Waste management is problematic world over and it is the greatest hurdle for municipalgovernments within the urban areas to manage due to rapid population growth whichincreases generation of waste. Solid wastes are generated by all types of humanengagement as a result of industrial, social and domestic activities. Waste if not properlymanaged within the urban settlements / cities, impacts on public health and the generalenvironment. Solid waste specifically causes pollution of surface and ground water,blockage of drains and streams resulting to flooding. The general objective of the studywas assessing the effectiveness of the policy framework on solid waste management withininstitutional, financial, technical and regulatory facets, using the case of Nairobi CityCounty. The theoretical framework was based on institutional and capacity buildingtheories where the multi – tier pillars of institutions and all the elements influencesustainable solid waste management system and empowering individuals, communities andinstitutions, expected to perform their functions and solve problems. Theory of plannedbehaviour (TPB) and socio ecological theories (TSET) helped to examine humanbehaviours because people are always at the centre of any environmental activities. Theconceptual framework assumed that within institutional, financial, technical and regulatoryfacets are dependent on existing governance instruments (laws, regulations and policies)and their levels of implementation, public perceptions and awareness, attitudes andpractices and compliance. The study adopted a mixed study design and data was collectedusing surveys, through structured questionnaires, using a mobile based geo-referenced datamanagement system called KMacho. This involved initial coding of the questionnaire foruploading into the system for data collection. Data was then collected using mobile phonesinstalled with the application. This was collaborated with key informant interviews (KII),focus group discussion (FDG) and spatial satellite geo-spatial images. Random samplingwas used to select focus group discussion and key informant interview groups, because anymember of a group has an equal chance of being selected. The survey design wasconsidered more efficient since it is convenient data with high level of accuracyin representing a large population. The collection method has good statistical significanceand provides precise results. The sample size in this study included 385 households. Thesample was determined using stratified sampling procedure. They were randomly selectedand to minimized biasness, a systematic random sampling within the estates was done andthe subject units were either male or female household heads. Purposive sampling was usedto collect data on the spatial extent of illegal dumping sites. This data was generated fromhigh resolution satellite images of 2003, 2007, 2013 and 2017 which identified dumpingsites which were selected based on their spatial resolution characteristics and their spatialcoverage. Majority of the respondents 291 out of 385 (76%) were aware of what makes theenvironment clean or dirty, were aware of the policies and regulations on solid wastemanagement and how it can influence their behaviour on the way they handled theirgenerated waste. However, majority of 62% agreed that the enforcement of these policieshas not been carried out properly, as opposed to 36% of respondents who indicated thatthere is a problem in relation to the implementation of these policies. Majority, 269 out of385 (69%) were willing to comply with the policies on segregation of waste and the 3Rconcept (reduce, reuse and recycle), but there were poor structures in place to empowerthem, thus the negative attitude portrayed by the public towards solid waste managementthrough the culture of indiscriminate littering and lack of environmental ethics and values.This was confirmed by majority of the respondents, 254 out of 385 (66%) who agreed thatpublic awareness needs to be conducted more on SWM by NCC. This provide evidence toinform policy decisions that, different policy interventions are required focussing on SWMand the public responsibility and greater management capacity at all levels to enhance asustainable system
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    (University of Eldoret, 2016-08) Goro, Beatrice Atieno
    Urbanization and its related environmental problems demand for sustainable urban planning and management policies to safe guard the quality of urban environments. Urban Green Spaces (UGS) form an important component of the urban environment. They provide many environmental, health, and social services that contribute to the quality of life in cities. Unfortunately, green spaces are not being provided to match the growing urban population. Analyzing the current status of green spaces in urban areas thus serves as a tool for their planning and development. In this study, the status of green spaces in Eldoret Central Business District (CBD) and its environs was analyzed in terms of quantity, green space per capita availability, their spatial distribution and typologies to determine whether they can provide the benefits of green spaces and identify potential sites for their expansion. The study integrated the theory of urban ecology with the concept of Garden City and Biophilic city. The study area was chosen purposively while stratified random sampling was used to select study sites. The research used remote sensing data from Google earth taken in July 2014 and Spatial Analysis tool in ArcGIS 10.1. The results revealed that the available green spaces cover 465,567 m2 an area equivalent to 26% of the total study area. Per capita green space was calculated based on 75% of the urban core population data for 2010. Results show that green space per capita for Eldoret CBD and its environs is 2.5m2. The various typologies of green spaces were identified and their proportions within the total study area found to be: riparian green 5%, urban block green 7.6%, park green 0.3%, residential green 6.7%, roadside green 1% and institutional green 5.9%. Proportions of green spaces within their respective land cover zones include riparian 53%, urban block 18.4%, institutional 31.3%, parks 32.9%, residential 39.7% and roadside 0.07%. Typologies show traditional green spaces and a lack of innovative green spaces such as vertical green spaces. Results also show that green spaces are concentrated at the periphery in areas dominated by residential houses and institutions as well as parks, leaving the inner core with limited green spaces. Though it meets the minimum standard set by Cohen at 20% green space of total area, its per capita green space is not proportional to the minimum universal standard of 9m2 per capita green space recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). This shows that the existing green spaces do not make significant contribution to urban life due to their uneven distribution across the study area and its low green space per capita availability. As a result there is need to increase green space coverage especially within the urban core that is highly concretized. A map showing potential sites of green space increase was produced. This includes riparian and road buffer as well as gaps within parks. Other innovative green space potential sites such as traffic islands and wall greening are recommended.
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    (University of Eldoret, 2016) Tiony, John Kiplimo
    There has been a global concern about reduction of land under forest cover in the world. In Kenya; this has resulted in forest eviction. Mau forest complex which is located in the central region of the rift valley of Kenya is the biggest water tower in eastern Africa. Much of the forest in this tower has been excised. This has led to stringent measures taken by government to conserve the forest including eviction. The study was conducted in part of Eastern Mau, covering Nandi and Uasin Gishu Counties. The purpose of this study was to assess the socio- economic impact of forest displacement among Ogiek community. The specific objectives was to assess the actual impacts of displacement on household livelihoods, to examine Environmental impacts of displacement on Mau forest, the challenges facing the displaced Ogieks in their new resettlement site and the strategies employed by the evictees to cope up with new environment, and to suggest the best practices in Mau forest management. This study adopted a descriptive survey method. The sampling frame for this study comprised of 15,000 (N= 15,000), key informants, drawn from Government Agencies, Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and non-governmental organizations while respondents were drawn from household members of Ogiek. Multi-stage-cum-stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for this study. The instruments to be used for collection of data relevant to this study were questionnaires, interview schedules and focus group discussions. The study utilized descriptive statistics techniques for analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed by use of measures of central tendencies such as frequencies, means and percentages while qualitative data were summarized and interpreted in line with the research objectives and questions. Results of data analysis were presented in form of figures and tables. The study thus aimed at documenting Socio-Economic impacts of Mau forest eviction and forest conservation .The study was conducted between the month of September 2013 and May 2014. The Socio-economic impacts of displacement of Ogiek Community, majority of the respondents agreed that Mau forest displacement has affected the use of common property. The displacement has even gone to the extent of causing death to the affected. On environmental impacts majority of the respondents were of the opinion that the Mau displacement has brought about positive environmental impacts. For example majority of the respondents agreed that displacement has affected the Mau forest environment, other respondents had a positive opinion that the planting of conifers has positively affected the Mau forest environment. The study concluded that displaced persons are prone to a lot of social-economic problems. They have to struggle much for livelihood in the new place, he or she is always under stress and that because the social, cultural, economic and other values of the village life differs with that in their original place and undergo several changes which is quite strenuous. From the study it is noted that the Ogiek community suffers economically as they compete for resources and opportunities in their new areas, they are also socially challenged though it was revealed in the study that they struggle as much as possible to mingle with the host community so as to bridge the gap. The study recommended that the government should ensure that victims of forced evictions in the Mau Forest Complex and all other forest areas are provided with assistance in accordance with international human rights standards, including access to resettlement sites with effective access to basic services.