'Kenya slum upgrading programme 'An anaysis of Kibera intergrated water, sanitation and waste management project



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University of Nairobi Research Archive


Kenya has experienced rapid urbanization which has brought about many challenges, one of them being slum proliferation. This brings with it poor infrastructure delivery and a challenge in water and sanitation provision. Kenya, seeking to improve the lives of 5.3 million slum dwellers by 2020 (Kenya 2005) has set up a nationwide intervention in the slum areas. Kibera being one of the largest slum areas in Kenya was chosen as the pilot intervention site. This study was carried out in one of its villages- Soweto East- to determine the impact of the pilot intervention project (Kibera Integrated Water, Sanitation and Waste Management Project, K-WATSAN) being implemented by the Kenya Government and the UN HABITAT. Its main objective was to analyze the impact of the K-WATSAN intervention on the livelihoods of the residents. To achieve this objective the study utilized both secondary and primary sources of data and conducted a field study whereby questionnaires were administered in two villages- Lindi and Soweto East. The former acted as a control village as it had no intervention. Interview data was captured from selected respondents and was used to evaluate the livelihood, access to water and sanitation and community participation in the project. Content analysis and explotary data analysis were used to analyze the data using statistical tools of descriptive measures and methods of central tendencies; further statistical analysis on some selected variables was carried out to analyze the intervention's impact. The results indicated that K-WATSAN project has had a positive impact on the lives of the Soweto East residents in terms of; improved access to water and sanitation situation; improved accessibility and environmental conditions; improved sources of income and 'livelihoods security.The project has also achieved its aim of encouraging community participation in capacity building, empowerment and training of community members through the various trainings and Youth Empowerment Programme present in the settlement. The principles of inclusion, partnerships and sustainability have been reinforced through greater awareness, participation and partnerships in slum improvement. The study thus concluded that K-WATSAN project has had a positive impact in Soweto East and recommended embracing of community participation and proper governance mechanisms for any successful slum intervention on access to water and sanitation.