Water Supply

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    Effect of Socio-economic Factors on Access to Improved Water Sources and Basic Sanitation in Bomet Municipality, Kenya
    (Semantic Scholar, 2013-12-20) Koskei, E.C.; Koskei, R.C.; Koske, M.C.; Koech, H.K.
    The study presents data collected in an assessment on the effects of socioeconomic factors on access to improved water sources and basic sanitation in Bomet municipality. Bomet municipality is one of the areas in Kenya where water borne diseases such as intestinal worms, diarrhea and bilharzia are most prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic factors and access to improved water and basic sanitation. A Multi-stage random sampling method was used to obtain the sample. The questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. Analysis of data was done using the SPSS. Chi-Square test at 5% level of significance was used to analyze socioeconomic factors that determined household access to improved water and sanitation. The findings show that households' characteristics such as occupation and education level of the household head have a strong impact on the type of water source used by household as indicated by significance level of 0.01. The study also confirms that the type of toilet facility used by household was significantly influenced by the marital status of household head as indicated by significance level of 0.02. There is need for inclusive growth, basic education and women empowerment in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
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    Vulnerability of Kenya’s Water Towers to Future Climate Change: An Assessment to Inform Decision Making in Watershed Management | CoLab
    (Scientific Research, 2020-09-03) Mwangi K.K., Musili A.M., Otieno V.A., Endris H.S., Sabiiti G., Hassan M.A., Tsehayu A.T., Guleid A., Atheru Z., Guzha A.C., Meo T.D., Smith N., Makanji D.L., Kerkering J., Doud B., Kanyanya E
    Recent trends show that in the coming decades, Kenya’s natural resources will continue to face significant pressure due to both anthropogenic and natural stressors, and this will have greater negative impacts on socio-economic development including food security and livelihoods. Understanding the impacts of these stressors is an important step to developing coping and adaptation strategies at every level. The Water Towers of Kenya play a critical role in supplying ecosystems services such as water supply, timber and non-timber forest products and regulating services such as climate and water quantity and quality. To assess the vulnerability of the Water Towers to climate change, the study adopted the IPCC AR4 framework that defines vulnerability as a function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The historical trends in rainfall indicate that the three Water Towers show a declining rainfall trend during the March-April-May (MAM) main rainy season, while the October-November-December (OND) short rainy season shows an increase. The temperature patterns are consistent with the domain having a common rising trend with a rate in the range of 0.3°C to 0.5°C per decade. Projection analysis considered three emissions scenarios: low-emission (mitigation) scenario (RCP2.6), a medium-level emission scenario (RCP4.5), and a high-emission (business as usual) scenario (RCP8.5). The results of the high-emission scenario show that the annual temperature over the Water Towers could rise by 3.0°C to 3.5°C by the 2050s (2036-2065) and 3.6°C to 4.8°C by the 2070s (2055-2085 results not presented), relative to the baseline period 1970-2000. The findings indicate that exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity vary in magnitude, as well as spatially across the Water Towers. This is reflected in the spatially variable vulnerability index across the Water Towers. Overall vulnerability will increase in the water towers leading to erosion of the resilience of the exposed ecosystems and the communities that rely on ecosystem services these landscapes provide.
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    Optimization of rainwater harvesting system design for smallholder irrigation farmers in Kenya
    (IWA Publishing, 2021-04-15) Odhiambo, Kevin O.; Iro Ong'or, Basil T.; Kanda, Edwin K.
    The adverse effects of climate change on agriculture have been felt across the globe. Smallholder farmers in sub-Sahara Africa are particularly more vulnerable to the effects of climate change leading to loss of income and livelihood thus affecting global food security. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is emerging as a viable option to mitigate the negative effects of climate change by supporting rain-fed agriculture through supplemental irrigation. However, smallholder farmers are still grappling with a myriad of challenges hindering them from reaping the benefits of their investment in RWH systems. This review explores some of the factors behind the poor performance of RWH systems in Kenya and also seeks to suggest techniques that can be applied to optimize the design parameters for improved performance and the adoption of RWH systems. According to the review, RWH has the potential to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change among smallholder farmers. It allows for crop production beyond the growing season through supplemental irrigation. However, their impacts have been minimal due to the consistent poor performance of RWH systems. This is attributed to inefficiencies in design and construction brought about by lack of required technical skills among RWH system designers and implementers. Proper design and implementation are therefore paramount for better performance and adoption of RWH systems in the region. This will ensure that RWH systems are reliable, technically and economically feasible as well as possess a desirable water-saving efficiency.
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    Soil water dynamics under Moistube irrigation
    (Elsevier, 2020) Kanda, Edwin Kimutai; Senzanje, Aidan; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe
    The design and management of irrigation systems require knowledge of soil water movement. There are few studies on soil water dynamics of Moistube irrigation (MTI) since it is a relatively new type of subsurface irrigation technology. It was hypothesised that soil texture influences soil water distribution under MTI. We determined soil water distribution, experimentally and numerically, using HYDRUS 2D/3D model for two soil textures (loamy sand and sandy clay loam). The experiment consisted of a soil box filled with soil and Moistube, supplied with water under a constant pressure head of 60 kPa, placed at 20 cm below the soil surface. Soil water content (SWC) was measured using Decagon MPS-2 sensors installed at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm and laterally at 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm over a period of 72 h. Results showed that simulated SWC closely matched (R2 ≥ 0.70 and RMSE ≤ 0.045 cm3 cm−3) observed values for all depths considered for the two soil textures. The model slightly under- or over-estimated SWC (<15.6%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the soil water distribution in lateral and downward direction for both sandy clay loam soil and loamy sand. However, the SWC upward of the Moistube placement depth was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than both lateral and downward. SWC in loamy sand at 10 cm upward, downward and lateral after 24 h were 0.08 cm3 cm−3, 0.23 cm3 cm−3 and 0.20 cm3 cm−3, respectively. The corresponding values for sandy clay loam were 0.28 cm3 cm−3, 0.32 cm3 cm−3 and 0.31 cm3 cm−3 at 10 cm upward, downward and lateral, respectively. The simulations for wetted distance in both soil textures were also close to the observed values (R2 ≥ 0.97, RMSE ≤ 3.99 cm). Soil texture had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on soil water movement with upward movement faster in sandy clay loam than in loamy sand. The lateral and downward distances were 23 cm and 24.6 cm, respectively, for loamy sand after 24 h. Similarly, for sandy clay loam, the lateral and downward distance was 19 cm. These wetting distances should be considered in the design of MTI in terms of depth of placement and lateral spacing. The results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of HYDRUS-2D/3D model in the prediction of soil water movement for optimum design of MTI.
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    Hydraulic and clogging characteristics of Moistube irrigation as influenced by water quality
    (IWA, 2018-06-12) Kanda, Edwin Kimutai; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Senzanje, Aidan
    Irrigation consumes approximately 70% of total freshwater use worldwide. This necessitates the use of efficient irrigation methods such as micro-irrigation. Moistube irrigation (MI) is a new subsurface irrigation technology where the water emits from a semi-permeable membrane of the Moistube at a slow rate depending on the applied pressure and soil water potential. There is currently limited information on the performance of Moistube tapes with respect to discharge as a function of pressure or water quality. The aim of this study was to determine the flow characteristics of Moistube tapes as a function of pressure and the effect of suspended and dissolved solids on the emission characteristics. The pressure–discharge relationship was determined within a range of 20 kPa and 100 kPa. The clogging of the Moistube was determined using water containing low, moderate and high concentrations of suspended and dissolved solids at 20 kPa and 30 kPa. The results indicated that the Moistube discharge follows a power function with the applied pressure. The discharge decreased linearly over time because of clogging. Suspended solids had a more severe clogging effect on Moistube than dissolved solids. The results of this study should help in the design, operation and maintenance of MI systems.
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    The Effect of Consultant Related and External Factors on Completion of Water Projects in Kakamega County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Research, 2016-09) Kanda, Edwin; Muchelule, Yusuf; Mamadi, Simon; Musiega, Douglas
    Abstract Inability to complete projects is among the challenges faced in the course of executing construction projects. The most widely used project success criterion is meeting time, quality and cost requirements. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of consultant related and external factors on completion of water projects in Kakamega County, Kenya. The instrument of data collection was questionnaires. The target population consisted of 104 employees working for two water projects in Mumias and Lugari both in management and lower levels. Simple random sampling was used to select 90 who formed the sample size out of which, 74 respondents returned the questionnaires representing 82% response rate. Analysis of data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics using correlation and regression. Consultant related factors considered included experience, skilled personnel, coordination, site supervision and decision-making ability and they had a significantly fairly strong positive relationship with project completion ( r = 0.583, p < 0.05). External factors of political interference, industrial action, regulation, taxation and material unavailability in the market had a weak but significant positive relationship (r = 0.312, p < 0.05) with project completion. The overall regression model gave R2 of 0.409. This showed that that the variations around the means in consultant related and external factors is about 41%.Key words: Kakamega County, consultant related factors, external factors, project cost, project completion time and project quality
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    The role of women in generating data for environmental sustainability discourse - a water governance approach
    (Africa Journals Online, 2018) Walubwa, Jacqueline A.
    ‘Leave no one behind’ is the overarching Sustainable Development Goal motto for the world development order in the 21st century. SDG 5 roots for gender equality and inclusivity thus recognising women as part of the global citizens who are active doers in their environment as they form 50.1 per cent of the sub-Saharan Africa population. They thus have a role in generating data for their well-being. African scholarship has been wrought by a lack of city-wide data and especially gender specific data. This paper explores the role of women who live in informal settlements in producing environmental data about water specific items therein. It will go further to explore their representation in the governance processes. The methodology used in this paper is an exploration of water governance studies carried out in Nairobi’s (Kenya) informal settlements to analyse what kind of data women generate, their perceptions and how significant this data is in the policy making process. It uses both ethnographic and cross disciplinary action research and suggests that women have a near perfect lack of representation in data generation whilst recommending the need for them to be actively involved and included in the sustainability discourse all the while using the correct terminology as boundary terms.Keywords: Governance, Environmental Sustainability, Women, Informal Settlements, Africa
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    Rendering local commons sustainable : an informal water and sanitation context
    (Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd, 2019-03-01) A. Walubwa, Jacqueline
    Governing common property suggests that strict governance systems be put in place to sustainably and resiliently ensure that institutions have a long-standing tenure. The outcomes of each institution vary depending on the collective action bestowed and the local arrangements. The action is highly dependent on the rational choice of the community actors, who strategically choose to see that their cooperative behaviours will act to the advantage of their common property. This can only occur in a climate of trust and reciprocity in polycentric systems which are self-governed. This paper suggests using Ostrom’s design principles to govern local, human-made common property and further proposes the features that make for resilient informal systems. This theory is tested using an informal water and sanitation system as well as reviewing literature from second generation scholars.
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    'Kenya slum upgrading programme 'An anaysis of Kibera intergrated water, sanitation and waste management project
    (University of Nairobi Research Archive, 2010) Walubwa, Jacqueline
    Kenya has experienced rapid urbanization which has brought about many challenges, one of them being slum proliferation. This brings with it poor infrastructure delivery and a challenge in water and sanitation provision. Kenya, seeking to improve the lives of 5.3 million slum dwellers by 2020 (Kenya 2005) has set up a nationwide intervention in the slum areas. Kibera being one of the largest slum areas in Kenya was chosen as the pilot intervention site. This study was carried out in one of its villages- Soweto East- to determine the impact of the pilot intervention project (Kibera Integrated Water, Sanitation and Waste Management Project, K-WATSAN) being implemented by the Kenya Government and the UN HABITAT. Its main objective was to analyze the impact of the K-WATSAN intervention on the livelihoods of the residents. To achieve this objective the study utilized both secondary and primary sources of data and conducted a field study whereby questionnaires were administered in two villages- Lindi and Soweto East. The former acted as a control village as it had no intervention. Interview data was captured from selected respondents and was used to evaluate the livelihood, access to water and sanitation and community participation in the project. Content analysis and explotary data analysis were used to analyze the data using statistical tools of descriptive measures and methods of central tendencies; further statistical analysis on some selected variables was carried out to analyze the intervention's impact. The results indicated that K-WATSAN project has had a positive impact on the lives of the Soweto East residents in terms of; improved access to water and sanitation situation; improved accessibility and environmental conditions; improved sources of income and 'livelihoods security.The project has also achieved its aim of encouraging community participation in capacity building, empowerment and training of community members through the various trainings and Youth Empowerment Programme present in the settlement. The principles of inclusion, partnerships and sustainability have been reinforced through greater awareness, participation and partnerships in slum improvement. The study thus concluded that K-WATSAN project has had a positive impact in Soweto East and recommended embracing of community participation and proper governance mechanisms for any successful slum intervention on access to water and sanitation.
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    My Water, My Choice! The Role of Citizens in Ensuring Equitable Access to Water in Soweto East Village—Nairobi
    (Research Gate, 2016-01) Walubwa, Jacqueline
    The chapter highlights the local governance structure of disenfranchised citizens and their role in self-mobilization to enforce democratic innovations in governing their water resources, an important issue confronting the governing of urban Africa. In the wake of lack of accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals, these failures manifest themselves in the form of competition for urban services with an increasingly high rate of inequality between planned and unplanned settlements, further depicting a lack of leadership in policy implementation and political goodwill of the governance systems in upholding the sustainability agenda. Ethnographic surveys and interviews were used to acquire information relevant to the study and indicate that citizen empowerment is a panacea to development.
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    (University of Eldoret, 2015-10) Magut, Rebecca Jebet
    Water is vital to basic livelihoods and economic growth. Marigat division, Baringo County, Kenya experiences water scarcity during the dry periods, a situation that is further aggravated by droughts and erratic rains. During the rainy seasons, a lot of water is lost as runoff which can be harvested and stored in water reservoirs and used for domestic and livestock throughout the dry seasons. This study seeks to identify the source, the reliability of water sources, investigate the willingness of the community to participate in harnessing water runoff, determine suitable sites of water pans for harvesting runoff water to meet Marigat‟s water demand and propose a water supply network for the Marigat community. The study adopts a survey research design. The study was based on systems theory of planning, where smaller components interrelate within and at their hierarchical level. The sampling procedure was based on stratified random sampling size of 383 household heads and 10 key informants. Questionnaires were distributed to the household heads using stratified random sampling while interview schedule were used to obtain information from Focus Group Discussions and key informants. Data was cleaned, coded and entered into SPSS and analysis conducted as per the objectives. Weighted overlay suitability analysis within Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to site the potential sites of water reservoirs, weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative significance. Water Evaluation and Planning System model (WEAP 21) was used to determine whether the water to be harvested was able to meet the Marigat community‟s water demand thus, a scenario was built from the reference scenario; Creation of new water pans. The results of the reference scenario were validated using observed flows at Marigat Bridge station and WEAP 21 was also used to come up with a water supply network. The research findings indicated that the main source of water in Marigat was surface water from the river. The water sources were not reliable and they are sparse. In addition, the Marigat community has the willingness to harness water runoff and there was significant association between water scarcity and willingness to contribute to the harvesting of water runoff. The results show that with the creation of proposed five new water pans for harvesting runoff in areas facing water scarcity, the unmet domestic and livestock water demand is met up to 2020. There are suitable sites for construction of water pans in the study area. Some of the organizations involved in efforts to avail enough water resources to the Marigat community are: The World Vision, Marigat Child and Care Program (MCPF), Kerio Valley Development Authority (KVDA) and Kenya Rainwater Association. The study will add to the body of knowledge on water resources planning and management skill to alleviate the problem of water shortage especially in dry areas like the study area.
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    Vulnerability Assessment of Sustainable Drinking Water Supply and Development in a Changing Climate in Nakuru Town, Kenya
    (East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 2019-12-24) Keli, Margaret Mwikali; Munyao, Thomas Mutuku; Kipkorir, Emmanuel C.; Shakala, Edward Kokan
    The close connection between the climate and the hydrological cycle makes climate change to have a significant impact on water resources with regard to variability, distribution and occurrence. Research wise, climate change has assumed increasing importance from the perspective of development compared to the water environment. In Kenya, key water-related issues facing the country are the effects of climate variability and the steady degradation of the nation’s water resources. Limited research has focused on alleviating the problem as the effects of the water crisis remain wider, deeper and more uncertain requiring immediate attention. Major indicators of existing problems are manifested in lack of information and knowledge on climate-induced changes under natural variability conditions in drinking water regimes, quality, quantity, human health and likely future changes. The study uses a scientific approach based on hydrological analysis focusing on the link between changing climate conditions and drinking water quality and supply issues in Nakuru Municipality. Primary data collection employed measurement and analysis of selected inorganic drinking water quality variables with significant risk to health in the area’s local natural conditions. To explore short and long-term trends of climatic change indicators and their effect on the area’s hydrology, statistical trend analysis of rainfall for a period of 45 years was used. Temperature data used covered a period of 36 years. Water samples were taken to represent important water source points for public supply for ten months (June 2014 to March 2015) and analysed in accordance with standard methods. Data were analysed by trend analysis, descriptive and correlation techniques. Strong, weak and negative trends were observed between water quality variables and rainfall variability. Results show that temporal and spatial variability of rainfall patterns and temperature in the area of study affect surface and groundwater recharge processes, water table, quality, quantity and supply issues. According to the study, the effects of drinking water crisis linked to climate variability and change in terms of prediction methods, frequency, and rate of change, quality and quantity are wider, deeper and more uncertain requiring immediate attention. The existing challenges limit sustainable development, effective long-term planning and management of the areas drinking water resources. The results can be valuable in characterizing and addressing the study area’s water quality conditions and trends.
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    (2016-05-20) Sagwa, Kennedy Muzee
    Water is a basic human need. It is required for both domestic and industrial use. In Nairobi, the institution charged with provision of water to the residents is Nairobi Water and Sewerage Company (NWSC). However, NWSC serve only 50% of Nairobi with the rest left to find alternative sources of water. Embakasi location in Nairobi County, which is the study area, is one of the areas of Nairobi city that is inadequately served by NWSC. In addition to the low NWSC network coverage in the Embakasi location, there is irregular water supply owing to rationing with most estates getting water on two days of the week. This situation has led to the emergence of small scale water suppliers who get their water from groundwater resources through boreholes. The study set out to identify households’ concerns regarding water supply; identify environmental problems occasioned by small scale water suppliers, identify the small scale water suppliers and their distribution in Embakasi location; assess their activities and operations; investigate the factors determining location of small scale water supplier; and, identify the challenges they face. Thus, the broad objective of this study was to establish the environmental implications of small scale water suppliers in Embakasi location. The study employed the use of interview schedules, observation, photography, geographic positioning systems (GPS) and questionnaires to get primary data. Through purposive sampling, key informants in the water supply sector were identified and interviewed. With the help of a key informant, small scale water suppliers were identified and interviewed. Household interviews were also carried out. The location was clustered to ensure that all the estates were covered and questionnaires administered to 300 households served by Nairobi Water and Sewerage Company (NWSC) and the small scale water suppliers. A total of 20 small scale water suppliers were identified out of which 15 were interviewed. Results indicate that Embakasi residents mean daily per capita water consumption was 51.3 litres per day per person and majority of them preferred privately supplied water as opposed to being served by NWSC. Indeed, water access has greatly been improved by the small scale water suppliers especially in Embakasi estate (an estate within Embakasi location) where NWSC coverage is very low and in some places non-existent. Availability of good quality water, presence of competition from other operators and distance to customers were some of the factors that determined the location of a water supply business in the location. High fluoride concentration in groundwater was the biggest challenge facing these operators. The main environmental concern identified related to groundwater abstraction in Embakasi include absence of monitoring by Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) and complete disregard to the minimum distance of 800 metres between boreholes as recommended by the Water Act, 2002. The study recommends that WRMA should ensure efficiency in data generation so as to have a more complete database of the water resources in Embakasi location. For environmental stability, the minimum distance of 800 meters between boreholes as set by the Water Act, 2002 should be adhered to. Moreover, buffer zones of natural habitat should be created around boreholes to safeguard against contamination with sewerage water and/or boreholes should not be drilled in densely populated areas.
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    (University of Eldoret, 2018-09) Kiprop, John Kipyegon
    As the demand for water in rural Kenya keep increasing due to high population growth, the quality of its supply is being compromised by agriculture related degradation. This study investigated the economic valuation of Moiben river degradation and domestic water supply to the surrounding community for sustainable protection. It employed Contingent Valuation Method to measure the objectives of study which includes; assessing the economic significance of Moiben river to nearby households; examine the relationship of agricultural productivity on degradation of Moiben River; estimating the willingness to pay and factors that influences the likelihood of Willingness To Pay responses for river protection and water supply. A sample of 384 households living along Moiben river in Elgeyo /Marakwet County was studied. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data. To achieve the total value, contingent market scenario was established. Results indicated that Majority of the respondents owns land below 10 acres while minority owns 41 acres and above. Majority of the residents use the river for domestic purposes. Moiben River has played a fundamental role in the lives of the people of Marakwet West. Agriculture is one of the main sources of water pollution. The average amount residents were willing to pay for river protection was Ksh 170 and an addition Ksh 196 for water supply. Based on the results, it was found that there was no statistically significant relationship between Willingness to Pay and age, gender, marital status, education, employment, land size, monthly income and distance from the river as determined by Pearson Correlation. Moreover, the results show that there was statistical significant relationship between household size and WTP as determined by Pearson Correlation. The study recommends that residents be sensitized on environmental protection to adequately address any potential environmental problems associated to water degradation from human activities. Since that there is willingness to pay for domestic water supply, the Government need to consider providing treated piped water
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    (University of Eldoret, 2014) Nakhungu, Paul Kombo
    Access to safe drinking water remains a challenge for most developing countries including Kenya, which is seen as a water-scarce Country. To enhance its provision, many initiatives have been put in place by the Government of Kenya; the most celebrated being the enactment of the Water Act of 2002, which opened the door for private sector to partner with government to revitalize water service delivery. Despite the introduction of public-private partnership approach in provision of water supply and sanitation services, the problem of accessibility still persist. The purpose of this study was to assess the public-private partnership (PPP) approach in provision of water and sanitation services to household consumers. Specifically, the study looked at water consumption; coverage expansion through public-private partnership approach; contribution of PPP approach in improving quality service delivery; relationship between water sources and household water related health problems and finally challenges facing PPP approach in provision of water supply and sanitation services. The study employed household survey methodology, using questionnaires and interviews to gather the relevant information. Stratified sampling techniques, simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select sample size. Data collected was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The study found that PPP approach has contributed to improved accessibility to water supply services since the majority (84.4%) of households could access water within a distance less than one kilometre. The study also found that water related health problems in the Municipality are not correlated to water source, thus there must be other factors that contribute to water related health problem in the Municipality. However, the provision of sanitation service is still poor due to the fact that it was still in the hands of local authority. Therefore, the study recommends that sanitation especially garbage collection should be handed over to private firms to provide the services to residents. The study further recommends harmonisation of policies in both private and public sector so as to have comprehensive policy framework that serves the interest of all stakeholders.
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    Rural Water Supply in the Era of Climate Change in Kenya; The Case of Kapseret Sub County, Uasin Gishu County | African Journal of Education,Science and Technology
    (African Journal of Education, Science and Technology (AJEST), 2023-04)
    There is a perception that water supply in Uasin Gishu County is reliable due to the medium to high annual rainfall amounts received in the region. However, this is not the case as rainfall is not evenly distributed throughout the year. Consequently, many rural households experience water shortage in the dry season. The aim of the study was to assess reliability and evaluate the safety of domestic water sources in Kapseret Sub County. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 404 households selected randomly from four wards in the rural part of Kapseret Sub-County and the data subjected to frequency analysisprocedure. The study established that domestic water sources include; shallow wells (92.2%), rainwater (14.4%), river (8.2%), stream (5.2%), borehole (2.0%), piped water (3.9%), dams (2.0%) and springs (1.0%). An average 44.8% of the households’ experience seasonal water shortage. Distance to main water sources increases from an average of 22.3 meters in the rainy season to an average of 216 meters in the rainy season. As a result, households have adopted various water conservation strategies in the dry seasons including reusing water, cleaning house and clothes periodically, watering animals and cleaning clothes at the water point, and using little amounts of water for the various activities. About 36.6 % of households use water from unprotected water sources in the rainy season compared to 41.1% in the dry season, and therefore the water is prone to contamination. An average 63.6% of the households fetch water manually from the source using rope and container, with only 28.7% storing water in tanks. In conclusion, water security is yet to be achieved in the area of study. It was recommended that there is need for sound investment by national and county governments towards reliable water supply in rural areas.
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    (Research Publish Journals, 2023-05-05) Okemwa, Sam; Kiprono, Kelvin; Matuku, DR Eng Peter; Kiptum, DR Eng Clement; Kipkorir, Prof Eng Emmanuel
    Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to establish water security through autonomous rainwater harvesting, storage, and distribution mechanisms. The primary focus of the research is on developing a reliable and cost-effective method for harvesting, storing, and distributing rainwater in an autonomous manner, whereby the system is self-regulating in terms of harvesting, storing, and distributing water in response to localized and customized needs or conditions, more especially to communities that are struggling to meet their minimal water demands. The paper aims to develop an integrated and automated system that is capable of collecting, storing, and distributing rainwater in a sustainable manner, with the goal of increasing water security in areas with limited or unreliable water supply as exhibited in arid and semi-arid lands or places with poor water infrastructure conditions. The research will initially explore existing rainwater harvesting systems, including both conventional and innovative designs, in order to identify the most effective methods for harvesting rainwater. This will include looking at appropriate storage, filtration and distribution systems, as well as considering the economic, environmental, and social impacts of these systems, identifying the benefits and drawbacks of their system design deployment. Following this, the research will focus on developing an autonomous rainwater harvesting system that is capable of responding to economic, environmental and social factors in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This will involve the development of an integrated and automated system for collecting, storing and distributing rainwater, with an emphasis on sustainability and water security. The research will consider issues such as water scarcity, resource management, and environmental protection in order to ensure that the autonomous rainwater harvesting system is designed with these considerations in mind. Additionally, it will analyze the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system, and explore potential areas of application for the system. Finally, the paper will provide an assessment of the overall impact of the autonomous rainwater harvesting system on water security and consider the potential for further development and improvement of the system if sustainable. Keywords: rainwater harvesting, distribution mechanisms, distributing water, water security. Title: SYNTHESIS: SMART RAINWATER HARVESTING, STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION TO ENHANCE WATER SECURITY Author: Sam Okemwa, Kelvin Kiprono, DR. Eng. Peter Matuku, DR. Eng. Clement Kiptum, Prof. Eng. Emmanuel Kipkorir International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Research   ISSN 2348-7607 (Online) Vol. 11, Issue 1, April 2023 - September 2023 Page No: 32-37 Research Publish Journals Website: www.researchpublish.com Published Date: 05-May-2023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7898522 Paper Download Link (Source) https://www.researchpublish.com/papers/synthesis-smart-rainwater-harvesting-storage-and-distribution-to-enhance-water-security
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    Influence of Adherence to Quality Management System Standards on Access to Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya
    (IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 2018-02-23) Journals, Iosr
    In Kenya, over 3,100 children die annually for using unsafe water and poor sanitation. In the2015/2016 financial year, access to water in Kenya stood at 54% for urban and 51% for rural areas. This lowaccess to water and sanitation services could be as a result of the management practices in the water servicesproviders. Previous studies have revealed the unsuccessful attempts to improve access of water and sanitationservices through privatization and structural reforms in the water sector. These studies did not assess howmanagement practices such as the quality management system can enhance access to water and sanitationservices. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the level of adherence to qualitymanagement system standards on access to water and sanitation services. The study adopted a combination ofdescriptive and explanatory research designs. The target population consisted of the 86 water service providersin Kenya. The sample comprised 70 water service providers who were selected using the stratified randomsampling. The respondents of the study included the 70 general managers of the selected water serviceproviders. Primary data was collected by the use of questionnaires. Secondary data was obtained from the 2016 /2017 WASREB report. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability through the content validityindex (CVI=0.833) and the Cronbach alpha ’ s internal consistency index (a=0.773) for reliability. The studyfound that thelevel of adherence to quality management system standards significantly influenced the access towater and a sanitation service in Kenya (t=15.7, p<0.05).The study recommended that the management of thewater service providers should strengthen the level of adherence to quality management system standards toenhance access to water and sanitation services to the members of the public.
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    Public Knowledge and Perception of Drinking Water Quality and Its Health Implications: An Example from the Makueni County, South-Eastern Kenya
    (MDPI, 2022-04-09) Gevera, Patrick Kirita; Dowling, Kim; Gikuma-Njuru, Peter; Mouri, Hassina
    Due to the semi-arid nature of Makueni County in South-Eastern Kenya, there is a high dependence on groundwater resources for domestic use. Reliance on this source of potable water may have health implications for the population, given the presence of several naturally occurring and potentially harmful elements reported from aquifer source rocks, soil, and water in the area. A survey involving questionnaires and focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted with 115 individuals to determine the local population’s knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of their drinking water quality and its health impacts. The results show that most respondents (67%) preferred piped water because it was pre-treated and not saline. Only 29% of the respondents were very satisfied with the taste of their drinking water, while the rest complained about varying salinity levels, ranging from slightly salty to very salty. This low satisfaction might have influenced the low daily drinking water consumption (1–2 L) by most respondents. Health issues reported by many (43%) respondents in the area include diarrhoea and gastrointestinal upsets, which may be associated with the saline nature of the drinking water. Elevated fluoride (F−) in the local groundwater was reported, and the health effects remain a concern. Although 91% knew someone with dental fluorosis, 53% did not know the deleterious effects of high F− in drinking water. Most respondents (59%) associated the salty nature of the water with dental fluorosis, and as a result, 48% avoided drinking the salty water to prevent the condition. Despite the high prevalence and known psycho-social effects, most people did not perceive dental fluorosis as a severe health threat. The increased health risks associated with high salinity and high F− in drinking water in Makueni County are poorly understood by most residents, regardless of their education, gender, or age. This warrants an immediate public health education programme and detailed epidemiological studies to determine all the health effects associated with naturally occurring, potentially harmful elements in groundwater in the area.
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    Precipitation Sensitivity to the Uncertainty of Terrestrial Water Flow in WRF-Hydro: An Ensemble Analysis for Central Europe
    (American Meteorological Society, 2018-06) Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Baur, Florian; Lerch, Sebastian; Wagner, Sven; Fersch, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kerandi, Noah M.; Keil, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald
    Precipitation is affected by soil moisture spatial variability. However, this variability is not well represented in atmospheric models that do not consider soil moisture transport as a three-dimensional process. This study investigates the sensitivity of precipitation to the uncertainty in the representation of terrestrial water flow. The tools used for this investigation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and its hydrologically enhanced version, WRF-Hydro, applied over central Europe during April–October 2008. The model grid is convection permitting, with a horizontal spacing of 2.8 km. The WRF-Hydro subgrid employs a 280-m resolution to resolve lateral terrestrial water flow. A WRF/WRF-Hydro ensemble is constructed by modifying the parameter controlling the partitioning between surface runoff and infiltration and by varying the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. This ensemble represents terrestrial water flow uncertainty originating from the consideration of resolved lateral flow, terrestrial water flow uncertainty in the vertical direction, and turbulence parameterization uncertainty. The uncertainty of terrestrial water flow noticeably increases the normalized ensemble spread of daily precipitation where topography is moderate, surface flux spatial variability is high, and the weather regime is dominated by local processes. The adjusted continuous ranked probability score shows that the PBL uncertainty improves the skill of an ensemble subset in reproducing daily precipitation from the E-OBS observational product by 16%–20%. In comparison to WRF, WRF-Hydro improves this skill by 0.4%–0.7%. The reproduction of observed daily discharge with Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients generally above 0.3 demonstrates the potential of WRF-Hydro in hydrological science.