Groundwater Resource Mapping through the Integration of Geology, Remote Sensing, Geographical Information Systems and Borehole Data in Arid-Subarid Lands at Turkana South Sub-County, Kenya

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2019

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Abstract

The integrated approach of various techniques which historically have been used independently is key to successful exploration, development, exploitation and management of the groundwater resources. The integration of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Borehole data has been used in the study area to assess their applicability in groundwater investigation. The area of study lies in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) where principally remote sensing data has been used in extraction of various thematic maps (lithology, lineament, drainage density, and Digital Elevation Model Maps) for groundwater assessment. The GIS platform was used in integrating the RS data and data of productive boreholes. The lineaments generated through remote sensing agree well with structural geology of the area, where high density lineament points overlays the points of intense faulting. Lineaments found in the area correlate well with fault zones, fractures, and lithological contrasts as supported by geological map and structural map. Weathering, faulting and fracturing of the rocks mean a possible increase or a reduction in specific capacities as observed in productive boreholes in sedimentary rocks or igneous/basaltic rocks of the area. Similarly, it is noted that the degree of faulting affects the degree of radius of influence of a borehole in a particular area. These analyses show that groundwater potential within the Sub-County varies spatially with high dependency on geological structures in the basement region and more on geology within the volcanic and younger sediments.

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Citation

Nyaberi, D. , Barongo, J. , Kariuki, P. , Ogendi, G. and Basweti, E. (2019) Groundwater Resource Mapping through the Integration of Geology, Remote Sensing, Geographical Information Systems and Borehole Data in Arid-Subarid Lands at Turkana South Sub-County, Kenya. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 7, 53-72.