Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Policy Framework on Solid Waste Management in Nairobi, Kenya

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University of Nairobi, Kenya
Waste management is problematic world over and it is the greatest hurdle for municipalgovernments within the urban areas to manage due to rapid population growth whichincreases generation of waste. Solid wastes are generated by all types of humanengagement as a result of industrial, social and domestic activities. Waste if not properlymanaged within the urban settlements / cities, impacts on public health and the generalenvironment. Solid waste specifically causes pollution of surface and ground water,blockage of drains and streams resulting to flooding. The general objective of the studywas assessing the effectiveness of the policy framework on solid waste management withininstitutional, financial, technical and regulatory facets, using the case of Nairobi CityCounty. The theoretical framework was based on institutional and capacity buildingtheories where the multi – tier pillars of institutions and all the elements influencesustainable solid waste management system and empowering individuals, communities andinstitutions, expected to perform their functions and solve problems. Theory of plannedbehaviour (TPB) and socio ecological theories (TSET) helped to examine humanbehaviours because people are always at the centre of any environmental activities. Theconceptual framework assumed that within institutional, financial, technical and regulatoryfacets are dependent on existing governance instruments (laws, regulations and policies)and their levels of implementation, public perceptions and awareness, attitudes andpractices and compliance. The study adopted a mixed study design and data was collectedusing surveys, through structured questionnaires, using a mobile based geo-referenced datamanagement system called KMacho. This involved initial coding of the questionnaire foruploading into the system for data collection. Data was then collected using mobile phonesinstalled with the application. This was collaborated with key informant interviews (KII),focus group discussion (FDG) and spatial satellite geo-spatial images. Random samplingwas used to select focus group discussion and key informant interview groups, because anymember of a group has an equal chance of being selected. The survey design wasconsidered more efficient since it is convenient data with high level of accuracyin representing a large population. The collection method has good statistical significanceand provides precise results. The sample size in this study included 385 households. Thesample was determined using stratified sampling procedure. They were randomly selectedand to minimized biasness, a systematic random sampling within the estates was done andthe subject units were either male or female household heads. Purposive sampling was usedto collect data on the spatial extent of illegal dumping sites. This data was generated fromhigh resolution satellite images of 2003, 2007, 2013 and 2017 which identified dumpingsites which were selected based on their spatial resolution characteristics and their spatialcoverage. Majority of the respondents 291 out of 385 (76%) were aware of what makes theenvironment clean or dirty, were aware of the policies and regulations on solid wastemanagement and how it can influence their behaviour on the way they handled theirgenerated waste. However, majority of 62% agreed that the enforcement of these policieshas not been carried out properly, as opposed to 36% of respondents who indicated thatthere is a problem in relation to the implementation of these policies. Majority, 269 out of385 (69%) were willing to comply with the policies on segregation of waste and the 3Rconcept (reduce, reuse and recycle), but there were poor structures in place to empowerthem, thus the negative attitude portrayed by the public towards solid waste managementthrough the culture of indiscriminate littering and lack of environmental ethics and values.This was confirmed by majority of the respondents, 254 out of 385 (66%) who agreed thatpublic awareness needs to be conducted more on SWM by NCC. This provide evidence toinform policy decisions that, different policy interventions are required focussing on SWMand the public responsibility and greater management capacity at all levels to enhance asustainable system