Sustainable Land Management

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    Propagation And Regeneration Of Important Indigenous Tree Species In Kakamega Forest, Kenya
    (International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS), 2018-08-01) Busuru, Carolyne; G., Obwoyere; Kirui, Bernard
    This study evaluated regeneration potential of P. africana vis a vis Olea capensis and Croton megalocarpus, identified the seed for propagation and suitable sowing media that gives optimum germination results. An experiment was set to evaluate these. Seeds were collected prepared, germinated under the different media types and germination percent monitored. The data was collected on mean germination percent in different media ratio and statistical analyses conducted. The results indicated that There was significant difference in the timing of the collection of seeds (F 2, 60, f=24.47, P<0.001). Germination rate was significantly lower in stored seeds compared to the other two seed collection stages i.e. mature green seeds and mature ripe. There was a significant ‘medium’ effect on the germination of C. megalocarpus (F6,62, f=4.84, p<0.001), Prunus africana (Chi- square test = 14.10, d. f= 6, p = 0.029) and O. capensis (Chi –square test = 18.33, d. f= 6, p = 0.005). From the results, it was concluded that the best seed for propagation of P. africana is seed freshly harvested, mature and ripe even without any pre-treatment. It is therefore recommended that P. africana seed should be sown in sand: sawdust 1:1 immediately after harvesting for optimum germination.
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    Evaluation of Spatio-Temporal Soil Moisture Variability in Semi-Arid Rangeland Ecosystem, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya
    (Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 2021-09-02) Kapkwang, Charles C.; Onyando, Japheth O.; Kundu, Peter M.; Hoedjes, Joost
    Aim: To evaluate the spatio-temporal soil moisture storage and retention capacities in semi-arid rangeland ecosystem, Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR), Kenya Study Design: Randomized complete block design (RCBD) of reference Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) station, ten-(10) spatially distributed (soil moisture and temperature capacitance) probes (5TM-ECH20) sites. Place and Duration of Study: Kenya, MMNR, the oldest natural semi-arid rangeland ecosystem and globally unique for the great wildebeest migration, between May 2017 and April 2019. Methodology: Soil moisture (SM) variation data was collected using (CRNS) at spatial and point-scale 5TM-ECH2O probes, and gravimetric water content from (10) spatially distributed stations. Both CRNS and 5TM-ECH2O probes were used to monitor near-real time moisture levels at different soil layers ranging between 0-5cm, 5-10cm, 15-20cm, 35-40cm, and 75-80cm. Soil physical and chemical properties were laboratory analyzed. Calibration and validation datasets were obtained from 5TM-ECH2O probe and gravimetric soil samples extracted from respective layers and sites.
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    The role of the private forestry sector in response to climate change in central Africa: the case of Cameroon
    (The Commonwealth Forestry Association, 2019-08-01) Tieguhong, J.C.; Ketchatang, P.T.; Chia, E.; Assembe-Mvondo, S.; Oeba, V.O.
    This paper outlines the role of private forestry sector actors in response to climate change in Cameroon using literature reviews, field consultations and stakeholders’ analyses. National policy and institutional frameworks on climate change initiatives linked to forests were analysed. Three local non-governmental organisations in partnership with the private sector and one logging company are actively engaged in climate change-related activities such as sustainable forest management, certification, enrichment planting, afforestation, community tree planting and adoption of improved fish-smoking technologies. Although logging companies are the traditional private sector players in forestry, increasing global concerns about climate change have led to new entrants and emerging prominent players in tackling forestry and climate change-related issues. Overall, the analyses suggest low active participation of the private sector in climate change-related activities in Cameroon. This could be reversed by putting in place the correct institutional arrangements and overhauling strategies to ensure the active participation of several other logging companies in the country. From a business perspective, climate change funding facilities need to engage logging companies in climate change activities including rehabilitating disturbed forest sites such as logging gaps, old logging yards and gantries.
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    Socioeconomic factors influencing the choice of climate-smart soil practices among farmers in western Kenya
    (Elsevier, 2021-06-01) Mogaka, Bwema; Bett, Hillary Kiplangat; Karanja, S.
    The effects of climate change and variability cause a shift in climatic patterns and increasing shocks. These changes and shocks are affecting soil that is the backbone of many, particularly the farming communities. Climate-Smart soil (CSS) practices among farmers are known to rehabilitate and protect it. These practices will improve soil fertility, increase crop productivity and mitigate climate change as soil act as carbon sinks. The CSS practices uptake is low and varied among the farmers due to differences in farmer attributes, resource endowment, farm characteristics, CSS practice requirements, and climate change perceptions. This study examines the socio-economic factors that influence the adoption choice of CSS practices among farmers in three Counties: Kakamega, Bungoma, and Siaya, in western Kenya. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, the data was collected through structured interviews with the aid of a close-ended questionnaire. A multinomial logit model was used to analyze the socio-economic factors influencing the choice of CSS practice among farmers. The findings indicate that the household head age, education level, gender, farming experience, duration of the practice, farm size, plot size, number of plots in the farm, form of land ownership influenced the adoption of CSS practices. Therefore, development practitioners should consider these factors that inform the CSS practices adoption when rolling out programs that aim to increase the uptake. Policies, which improve agricultural education levels, climate change sensitization and financing, access to resources, and gender mainstreaming to address inequalities should be put in place to increase and bridge the gap of varied uptake of CSS practices among farmers.
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    Seed Borne Fungal Organisms Associated with Germination Success of Terminalia brownii (Fresen) in Kenya
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2021-09-24) Atieno, Jackline; Obwoyere, Gilbert O.; Makanji, Dickson L.; Okeyo, Michael M.
    Terminalia brownii is an indigenous tree species highly valued in the Kenyan drylands for its products such as timber for wood curving, medicine, and charcoal production, among others. Due to this high value followed by overutilization, its population in the drylands is dwindling. Concern about the species’ low regeneration as shown by low germination has been raised. This research was conducted on the seed borne fungal organisms that are associating with the germination of this species. T. brownii seeds were collected from cluster patches of the species in Kendu Bay, Kimose and Ndumoni in Homabay, Baringo and Kitui counties of Kenya respectively. The seeds were harvested for fruit probing for maturity confirmation. Random sampling was used in selecting thirty trees, 50 meters apart, from which fresh fruits were uniformly collected from the crowns. The research adopted a complete block experimental design where one hundred seeds each from the three sites, were subjected to a germination test, seed borne fungal organisms’ presence, identified organisms cultured and DNA and DNA sequencing carried out for identification. Fungal organisms associated with germination success of T. brownii were Fusarium equiseti, Pestalotia sp, and Alternaria alternata. Paired t test run between germinants versus the number of sown seeds gave N = 12, p-value of 0.000, t = 16.29. On the other hand, paired t test run between fungal infected seeds with the number of germinants gave N = 12, p-0.000, t = 8.78. Fungi associated with germinants included Penicillium sp, and the data analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test run showed significant difference at a p value of 0.000. Identified organisms associating with none germination and germination success on the other hand were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Fungal organisms associating with germination success of T. brownii significantly affect germination of freshly extracted seeds from the field, hence, for maximum germination achievement, seeds should be sown while still fresh.
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    Impact of soil acidity and liming on soybean (Glycine max) nodulation and nitrogen fixation in Kenyan soils
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020-11-16) Bakari, Rukia; Mungai, Nancy; Thuita, Moses; Masso, Cargele
    There is a wide application of rhizobia inoculants to legume crops in Africa, irrespective of the soil acidity, though the latter limits the effectiveness of inoculants. Two trials were conducted in a controlled environment to determine suitable soil pH and impact of liming on soybean nodulation and nitrogen fixation to inform proper application of the rhizobia-inoculant technology on acid soils. In the first trial; soil, variety and inoculation had significant influence (p < 0.05) on weighed nodule effectiveness (WNE) and N fixation. Strongly acidic soils recorded low WNE and N fixation. In the second trial, WNE and N fixation significantly increased with co-application of lime and inoculation (p < 0.05). The results showed that soybean inoculation is effective in increasing nodulation and N fixation in moderate acidic soils, contrarily to strongly acidic soils. Interestingly, co-application of lime and inoculation has potential of increasing nodulation and N fixation in strongly acidic soils. The WNE is recommended as a robust formula to report nodule effectiveness, compared to the current percentage method.
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    The Effect of Participation in Farmer Groups on Household Adoption of Sustainable Land Management Practices in Kenyan Drylands
    (Sciencedomain International, 2020-12-15) Karaya, Rebecca N.; Onyango, Christopher A.; Ogendi, George M.
    Land degradation is a major cause of declining yields and loss of dryland ecosystems resilience in the Lake Baringo Basin in Kenya. One of the solutions to land degradation in drylands is the application of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) technologies. Improving farmers’ capacity to adopt SLM technologies has been an important strategy of the Kenyan government and her development partners to addressing land degradation. State agricultural extension services are charged with the role of building this capacity. Unfortunately, such extension services have had little impact in the Kenyan drylands. To counter this inadequacy in extension services, farmers have formed grass-root organisations to foster networks of support and information sharing. In this paper, we analysed the effect of participation in farmers organisation in promoting adoption of SLM practices by agropastoralists in the Lake Baringo Basin. Data were collected through in-depth household interviews with 150 farmers, 79 of them group members and 71 non-group members. Level of knowledge, sources of information and challenges of SLM adoption were studied. The study revealed significant and positive association between group participation and adoption of SLM practices at X2 (3, N=150=63.209, P=0.000). Additionally, group partnering with development agencies like Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and government departments was reported to have significant influence on household adoption of SLM practices at X2 (3, N=79=13.147, P=0.004). The results indicated that farmer groups can effectively be used to leverage farmers' adoption of SLM innovations and potentially improve household income and food security in the Kenyan drylands. We recommended organizational and resource capacity building for farmer groups to promote their effectiveness in provision of resources and services to their members. In addition, government research and extension agencies and academia should consider forming collaborations with farmer groups in generation of SLM technologies that are suited to the farmers location and prevailing context.
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    Effect of land terracing on soil physical properties across slope positions and profile depths in medium and high altitude regions of Rwanda
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020-03-14) Fashaho, Aloys; Ndegwa, George M; Lelei, Joyce J; Musandu, Amos O; Mwonga, Samuel M
    Although land terracing is promoted as a management practice for effective soil conservation in hilly areas, construction of terraces causes changes in soil properties. This study evaluated the effect of land terracing on some soil physical properties across slope positions and profile depths in medium and high altitudes of eastern and north-eastern Rwanda. Soil samples were collected from top, middle and bottom slopes of four year-old terraced and non-terraced lands. Results showed that soil textures were mainly sandy clay loams. At medium altitude, silt (19.6, 18.6%) and hydraulic conductivity (237.9, 129.8 mm h−1) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terraced than non-terraced land, while clay (29.2, 27.8%) and total available water content (TAWC) (222.2, 201.7 mm m−1) were higher in non-terraced than terraced land. At the high altitude, hydraulic conductivity (194.3, 124.1 mm h−1) was higher in terraced than non-terraced land, while soil bulk density (1.42, 1.35 g cm−3) and TAWC (251.6, 235.3 mm m−1) were higher in non-terraced than terraced land. Terracing increased silt content and hydraulic conductivity, and slightly decreased clay and water retention capacity. These changes are important in soil water and fertility management, and therefore need to be considered when using terraced lands.
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    Avian and Habitat Diversity in the Semi-Arid Lands of Baringo South, Kenya
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2020-08-04) Ogendi, George Morara; Ondieki, Rhoda N.
    Semi-arid wooded-shrublands are important and critical habitats that provide breeding and feeding grounds for a variety of bird species, some of which are endangered, vulnerable or threatened with extinction. Habitat type and size influence abundance and diversity of birds globally and particularly in developing countries that are characterized by rapid human population growth and haphazard urban, agricultural and industrial development. The objective of this study was to assess avian and habitat diversity at Chemeron, a semi-arid land in the northern rangelands of Kenya. The study was guided by four questions: What kind of Habitat types are present at Chemeron study area? What kind of birds are found at Chemeron area? What is the conservation status of birds found at Chemeron area? What are the functional feeding guilds of birds that are found in the study area? How does the habitat type influence bird species abundance and diversity at Chemeron? Four 2-km long transects radiating from a central point within the study area were selected for a ground survey of birds that was conducted on foot. The surveys were conducted between 06:30 and 09:30 and 16:00 and 18:00 from October 2019 to April 2020. Bird species were observed and identified to the species level using high-resolution binoculars, field guidebooks and available taxonomic keys. Our surveys documented two main habitat types: Acacia-Balanites-Boscia woodlands dominated by Acacia senegal, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nilotica, Boscia angustifolia, and Balanites aegyptica. The second kind of habitat consisted of the invasive Acalypha fruticosa and Indigofera arrecta with Acacia reficiens-Acacia brevispica overstorey. A total of 53 bird species were sighted and identified the vulnerable Yellow necked spurfowl (Francolinus leucoscepus). Seventy-nine percent of the birds were sighted as singles or in pairs except for the gregarious white browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali), Apus caffer, Numida meleagris, Streptopelia senegalensis, Dinemellia dinemelli and Corythaxoides leucogaster. Significant differences in the various species diversity indices among the six transects were observed (p < 0.05). Approximately 60% of the birds belong to the insectivorous and omnivorous feeding guild. Charcoal burning and uncontrolled harvesting of wood are the major threats to the avian habitats in the study area. The high diversity of bird species in the study area can be attributed to the varied diversity of habitats that provide feeding, nesting, refuge and breeding grounds for the birds. From the foregoing findings, we can conclude that the ASALs of Baringo South offer ample habitat for a large number of bird species including the vulnerable Yellow necked spurfowl. The variations in various bird diversity indices can be attributed to the observed heterogeneity of habitats in the study area. We recommend wise use of rangeland resources and protection of critical avian habitats within the ASALs. Efforts should be geared towards livelihoods diversification and empowerment of the Lake Bogoria communities. This will reduce the pressure on the wooded shrublands that is widespread in the study area.
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    Seasonal Vegetation Response to Climate Variability on Land use Land Cover Changes using In-Situ and Satellite Imagery Observation Data for Semi-Arid Maasai Mara National Reserve Rangeland Ecosystem, Kenya
    (Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 2021-11-15) Kapkwang, Charles; Onyando, Japheth; Kundu, Peter; Hoedjes, Joost
    Monitoring vegetation response through enhanced change detection by remote sensing and geographical information systems has tremendously improved real time information on surface features. Over the last few decades biomass monitoring at large scale has been made possible from information and metrics derived from satellite sensors. Maasai Mara National Reserve has been utilized in many decades as Kenyan natural grassland for wildlife grazing without periodic assessment of biomass production as affected by impact of climate variability yet it’s a tourism hub and one Kenyan economic contributor. This research evaluates the use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer or the Project for On-Board Autonomy–Vegetation and latest SENTINEL-2 for deriving the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values in relations to in-situ measurements of biomass production between 2009 and 2019 in Mara, Kenya. Area frame sampling of biomass per unit area in Kgha-1clipped from 50cm by 50cm quadrats were used in destructive sampling. The reserve grassland area coverage was estimated to be 717.203km2 (46.75%) where the in-situ total above ground grass biomass projected in dry season was 35.094 tonha-1. This was approximated as 2,516,952.208 tonnes per the season reserve cover while in wet season, 42.123 tonha-1 was approximated as 3,021,074.197 tonnes. The error matrices developed to assess the accuracies of the ecosystem classification indicated values that ranged between 80-100% and 87.5-100% for producer’s and user’s accuracy respectively. 3 out of 7 satellite imagery maps (2017, 2018, and 2019) were assessed for accuracy using reference data collected during fieldwork in 2018 and 2019 in ecosystem. The overall accuracy was 95.22% with Kappa index of 0.94 for 14 land cover classes shown in table 7. From the findings, potential factors influencing vegetation growth in different climatic regions are varied and complex. It can be noted that climate variability influence vegetation response in spatial scale to supply sustainable quality vegetation/pasture for wildlife feeds and ecosystem development. Vegetation mapping and monitoring of ecosystem behavior help stakeholders with information of vegetation characteristics Decision policy formulation and wildlife planning.
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    The effect of seasonal flooding and livelihood activities on retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in Cyperus papyrus wetlands, the role of aboveground biomass
    (Springer International Publishing, 2021-07-07) Hes, Edwin M. A.; Yatoi, Ruth; Laisser, Sadiki L.; Feyissa, Aster K.; Irvine, Kenneth; Kipkemboi, Julius; van Dam, Anne A.
    With growing demand for food production in Africa, protecting wetlands and combining increased agricultural production with conservation of the ecological integrity of wetlands is urgent. The role of aboveground biomass of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in the storage and retention of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was studied in two wetland sites in East Africa under seasonally and permanently flooded conditions. Nyando wetland (Kenya) was under anthropogenic disturbance from agriculture and vegetation harvesting, whereas Mara wetland (Tanzania) was less disturbed. Maximum papyrus culm growth was described well by a logistic model (regressions for culm length with R2 from 0.70 to 0.99), with culms growing faster but not taller in Nyando than in Mara. Maximum culm length was greater in permanently than in seasonally flooded zones. Total aboveground biomass was higher in Mara than in Nyando. The amounts of N and P stored were higher in Mara than in Nyando. In disturbed sites, papyrus plants show characteristics of r-selected species leading to faster growth but lower biomass and nutrient storage. These findings help to optimize management of nutrient retention in natural and constructed wetlands.
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    Variations in Soil Chemical Properties, Bacteria and Fungi Populations Along Slope Positions and Profile Depths in Terraced and Non-terraced Lands of Rwanda highlands
    (Agricultural Science Digest, 2019-10-11) Fashaho, A.; Ndegwa, G. M.; Lelei, J. J.; Musandu, A. O.; Mwonga, S. M.
    The objective of the current study was to evaluate effect of terracing on soil chemical and biological properties in the Rwanda highlands. The study was done in March 2017. Composite soil samples were collected from the top, middle and bottom slopes of four-year-terraced and non-terraced lands, in three profile depths, in medium and high altitudes. Results showed that, levels of organic carbon (1.3, 1.04%) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in non-terraced than terraced land, and populations of bacteria (3.59, 2.61 CFU*106g-1) and fungi (2.51, 1.57 CFU*104g-1) were significantly higher in terraced than non-terraced land, in the medium altitude, with no significant differences observed in the high altitude. Soil pH, total N, available P, CEC, exchangeable K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels in terraced and non-terraced lands were not significantly different in both altitudes. Thus, soil characteristics and fertility of the study areas showed slight changes after four years of terracing.
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    Stem cutting size influence on sprouting and survival of stem cuttings of African teak (Milicia excelsa (Welw.) in Kenya
    (Acadamic Journals, 2023-06-30) Nyiramvuyekure, Verene; Inoti, Shadrack Kinyua; Obwoyere, Gilbert Obati
    African Teak (Milicia excelsa (Welw.) belongs to the Moraceae family. Vegetative propagation has been proposed to overcome some of the reproductive biology challenges in the species. The study was to determine the influence of stem size on sprouting and survival of stem cuttings of African teak. The experiment was conducted at Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. The propagation materials were collected from healthy mother trees from the Coast and Western regions of Kenya. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used. The cutting lengths were 3, 6 and 9 cm. The planting medium was composed of river sand. Data were collected monthly on the number and height of sprouts and the cutting survival at the end of 150 days. Data were then subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT 15th Edition. Separation of means was performed using the SED. The results showed that the cutting length had a significant effect on the number of sprouts, F=43.45, df=2, p= 0.001 and height of sprouts produced, F=48.25, df=2, p=0.001. None of the cuttings obtained 50% of survival though the highest survival percentage obtained was 48.1% from cuttings with 9 cm length. The survival of cuttings obtained from 6 cm length reached 41.27% while 3 cm length attained 31.75%. It was concluded that cutting length positively influences the sprouting of cuttings; hence longer cutting should be selected for propagation. Further studies should take into account the optimum cutting length and the factors which influence the shoot formations and cutting survival including diseases prevention and age of cuttings. Key words: Milicia excelsa, stem cuttings, vegetative propagation.
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    Potential Risks of Agricultural Intensification in Tropical Catchments: the Case of Lake Naivash
    (Reseach Square, 2022-02-28) Onyango, Joel; Kitaka, Nzula; Bruggen, J.A. Van; Irvine, Kenneth; Simaika, John
    The use of both fertilizers and pesticides in the Lake Naivasha Catchment, is associated with agricultural intensification and has resulted in enrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients, coupled with exposure of aquatic biota to pesticide residues affecting aquatic ecosystem structure and function. This study explored the changes in land use and related it with the concentrations of nutrients and selected pesticides, to show the potential of combined (nutrients and pesticides) risks associated with agricultural intensification in Lake Naivasha catchment, a tropical catchment in Kenya. The results indicate that between 1989 and 2019 there was an increase of cropland by 623 km 2 , a reduction of forest cover by 200 km 2 , increase of grasslands by 534 km 2 , a reduction in bare soils by 100 km 2 , and an increase of 540 km 2 of built area. The land cover changes were correlated with increased concentrations of nutrients and pesticides in surface waters across sampling sites monitored in 2015. The results further indicated that while the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus indicated a potential stoichiometric nitrogen limitation, increase in forest cover resulted in decreased nutrient concentrations in the river water. Concentrations of DDT and technical HCH active ingredients indicated significant relationships between land use changes and intensification. Areas with extensive farming systems were associated with higher concentrations of TP and ∑DDT compared with areas of high intensification, which may reflect high connectivity between intensive agricultural systems and river ecosystems. When combined nutrients and pesticides were considered, most of the lower reaches of the rivers draining to L. Naivasha were of poor water quality status as defined by Kenyan water quality regulations. The changes in land cover and agricultural intensification in the Naivasha catchment needs management and policy frameworks that manage the combined contamination from nutrients and pesticide residues. Enhanced investment in institutional and policy reforms, and an integrated review of water quality standards and monitoring indicators that combine biological, physical, and chemical monitoring, is necessary for future management of the catchment.
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    Ecological restoration of pastoral landscapes in the drylands of East Africa
    (Acadamic Journals, 2021) Githae, E. W; Mutiga, I. M.
    The East African drylands cover about 47% of the land surface and host about 20 million people. Rural people living in the drylands are mainly pastoralists who depend on livestock for both economic and social well-being. During the dry season, pastoralists apply strategic mobility to access grazing resources efficiently. However, this strategy has experienced change and constraints due to various demographic- and climate-related challenges. Pastoral lands have been cleared for large-scale agriculture while pastoralists have shifted towards agro-pastoralism. This has eroded many dryland trees and forests leading to environmental degradation. This review discusses important indigenous trees that can be utilized in ecological restoration of drylands as well as providing ecosystem goods and services. These include trees for gums and resins (Acacia, Commiphora and Boswellia), indigenous fruit trees (IFTs) (Adansonia digitata, Tamarindus indica and Balanites aegyptiaca), trees for wood (Melia volkensii and Terminalia brownie) and fodder (Acacia tortilis and Faidherbia albida). They are not only drought-tolerant but also have minimal disruption to the ecosystem. Various dryland restoration strategies and constraints are also discussed. For successful establishment, seedling planting should be integrated with other appropriate practices such as natural regeneration, silviculture and enrichment planting for sustainable dryland management.
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    Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of Tithonia diversifolia and Kigelia africana extracts against Fusarium oxysporum in tomato
    (Acadamic Journals, 2021-05-31) Awere, C. A.; Githae, E. W.; Gichumbi, J. M.
    Fusarium wilt can cause severe losses in many vegetables and flowers, field crops and plantation crops. The main method for controlling Fusarium wilt is through chemical methods which have the disadvantage of polluting the environment and are expensive. Thus, there is a need for more environmentally friendly and cheaper techniques for controlling Fusarium Wilt. This study screened the phytochemical compounds of two plant extracts; Tithonia diversifolia and Kigelia africana and assessed their potency in controlling plant fungal pathogen F. oxysporum, which causes fusarium wilt in tomatoes. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the two plant extracts contained saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolics except alkaloids and steroids which were only found in T. diversifolia. The mean inhibitory zones ranged from 7.93 to 10.44 mm for T. diversifolia at 25 to 100 g/l. The mean inhibitory zones for K. Africana ranged from 12.07 to 15.56 mm at 25 to 100 g/l. K. Africana extracts had the highest inhibitory (antimicrobial) activity. Combining both extracts was more effective compared to the single extract. The effect of the combined plant extract and positive control was statistically significant (p < 0.05). This study provides scientific evidence that K. africana and T. diversifolia extract possess antifungal activity and can be used as a broad-spectrum in managing microbial diseases. Key words: Plant extracts, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antifungal properties, Fusarium oxysporum.
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    Sacred natural sites and cultural heritage in East Africa
    (Africa Bib, 2013) Ballarin, Marie Pierre; Kiriama, Herman; Pennacini, Cecilia
    The papers in this special issue of 'Uganda Journal' are the first result of a research project, 'Social historical approaches to natural sacred sites and contemporary implications for the preservation of heritage', which was conducted in the framework of a French Foreign Ministry Research Programme, CORUS. The sites investigated are located in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda. Contributions: Introduction (Marie Pierre Ballarin, Herman Kiriama and Cecilia Pennacini); Mubende Hill: preserving and transforming heritage in a Ugandan sacred site (Cecilia Pennacini); Twins in myth and music: historical controversies over Winyi I's tomb at Kibulala (Uganda) (Linda Cimardi); Music in the sacred forest of the Rwenzori (Vanna Viola Crupi); Buddo Naggalabi coronation site (Buganda): controversies around a source of unity (Anna Baral); The sacred grove of Gihanga (Rwanda): between historical memory and biodiversity conservation (Ilaria Buscaglia); Rabai at the crossroads of Christianity, anti-slavery crusade and the Mijikenda culture (Kenya), Intangible heritage, identity and archaeology at 'kaya' Mudzi Mwiru (Kenya) (Herman O. Kiriama); Heritage, communities and opportunities: Shimoni slave cave and Wasimi island heritage sites (Kenya) (Patrick O. Abungu)
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    EFFECT OF FARM SUCCESSION ON COFFEE PRODUCTION IN KISII COUNTY KENYA
    (ESci Journals Publishing, 2014-10) Ngeywo, Javan; A, Shitandi; Basweti, Evans; Aming'a, Nemwel
    Coffee is the world's most consumed drink next to water and second most traded commodity to oil. It is fourth GDP earner and employs 600,000 households in Kenya. Coffee production is dependent on various aspects of agronomic practices and farm succession. However, little information exists on the effect of farm succession on coffee production. Coffee farmers are elderly (Average 55 years), and reluctant to release coffee farms to the new generation, leading to reduced adoption of new technologies and reduced coffee production from 130,000 MT in 1989 to 50,000 MT in 2012 despite its profitability and opportunity of expansion. The objective of the research study was to establish the effect of farm succession on coffee production in Kisii County. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed to obtain quantitative and qualitative data using structured questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussion and case studies on a sample of 227 respondents from a population of 69,000 coffee farmers. Research data were analyzed using descriptive and Pearson correlation statistics at 5% significance level, with aid of SPSS and Microsoft excel programs and results reported using tables, charts and descriptions. The research findings indicated a weak significant correlation between farm succession and coffee production, P>0.05, average production of 1.77 kilograms of cherry and standard deviation of 3.23. The research findings are aimed at filling policy gaps by encouraging agricultural extension practitioners to encourage the youth to participate in coffee farming and encourage the elderly farmers to mentor the youth to take up farming. The coffee farmers need to be encouraged to widen the choice of farm successors beyond family members and beyond gender imbalance in order to encourage spurring of coffee production, thus increasing production and profitability.
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    DRIVERS OF GULLY EROSION: CASE STUDY, NAROK COUNTY, KENYA
    (International Journal of Social Science and Technology, 2017-04) Konana, Charity; Gachene, Charles; Mburu, David; Mureithi, Stephen; Gicheru, Patrick; Khalif, Zeinabu
    Soil erosion is a serious issue in Arid and Semi-Arid lands and affects community livelihoods and soil conservation efforts. The objective of this paper is to assess drivers of gully in Narok County, Kenya. The driving forces of soil erosion can lead to gradual loss of the adaptive capacity of the soil and its ecosystem.Agricultural intensity without soil conservation measures is linked to greater water erosion. Overgrazing is one of the main drivers of gully erosion in rangelands. Global warming puts more regions at high risk of gully erosion in the future. The projected scenario (2030) showed an increase in the area under shrubland, cropland and close natural forest and a decrease in grasslands and open natural forest in Narok County. This indicates overgrazing and deforestation will reduce vegetative cover resulting in increased runoff in the County.Further research in land use changes such as change in scale and intensity needs to be done particularly in the arid and semi- arid areas. More soil erosion studies that take into account socioeconomic factors are required. Projected land use and land cover change and climate scenarios are also needed particularly in relation to gully erosion.
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    Dynamics of Land Use Changes on The Livelihoods of The Local Communities in Baringo County: Understanding The Drivers
    (International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2021-09-09) Kateiya, Edward Lekaichu Ole; Thuo, Aggrey Daniel Maina; Ombok, Maurice Ochieng
    This paper examined the dynamics of land use changes on the livelihood of the local communities in Baringo County. Land is a principal factor of production, a source of life and livelihoods. It provides a means of living and a variety of uses such as agricultural, human settlement, environmental conservation, urban and industrial development purposes among others. These uses compete for space in a fixed area, hence the rising land use conflicts and degradation. The situation has threatened lives and livelihoods, making it difficult to plan for the livelihood activities in the County. This is happening against the backdrop of land use policy changes including; sessional paper no 3 of 2009 on the National Land Policy, the Constitution of Kenya 2010, the Land Act, 2012, the Land Registration Act, 2012, the Community Land Act, 2016 and sessional paper no 1 of 2017 on National Land Use Policy that were intended to alleviate the situation. This situation is now a major threat to the livelihood of the local communities in Baringo County. This study, therefore, sought to examined the dynamics of land use changes on the livelihood of the local communities in Baringo county with specific objective to establish the drivers of the changes. A comprehensive desk review of existing literature was done, and land use changes were descriptively analyzed. The review spanned from pre-colonial (before 1895), colonial (1895 to 1963), independence (1963 to 2010) including the subsequent years of land reforms following the promulgation of the Constitution of Kenya 2010 onwards to 2020. The study found that the key drivers of land use changes originate from the change of land use policies from customary to European-like systems during the colonial era (1895 to 1963). These drivers revolve around the conflicts in the application of land use policies and laws, dual production system (different land use for registered private land in arable areas and the unregistered community land in non-arable areas within the county) occasioning wide productivity gap and economic disparity. Further the knowledge gaps associated with colonial perceptions, ideologies, and attitudinal practices, which led to misconception and wrong policies aggravated the situation. The consequences disorganize the local community land use and social system, broke down the traditional grazing and cropping patterns, depleted soils fertility & degraded the environment. In addition, the study found out that in the unregistered community land, land use conflicts were rampant, and characterized by invaded and claim interest as well as unscrupulous legal manipulation of land ownership records leading to dispossession. These two salient features are the main drivers of land use changes that led to continuous and frequent fatal inter-ethnic land use conflicts among the local communities; causing displacement and destruction of property among other atrocities working against politically weak local community. This scenario destabilized livelihood possibilities making it difficult for local communities to engage in basic livelihood activities and create uncertainty for future development. The study concluded that the security of land tenure perpetrates land use conflicts particularly in the unregistered community land. The government, therefore, need to register the community land to enhance land tenure security in the county.