Land Governance

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    Analysis of the Spatial Relationship between Cattle and Wild Ungulates across Different Land-Use Systems in a Tropical Savanna Landscape
    (2018-02-04) Kinga, Geoffrey W.; Mironga, John; Odadi, Wilfred O.
    In many African savanna landscapes, domestic and wild herbivores cooccur across different land-use systems, but the role of land-use in shaping their spatial relationship is poorly understood. We evaluated the spatial relationship between cattle and wild herbivores categorized by body sizes and feeding habits across different land-use types, namely, private ranches (PR), transitional lands (TRL), and pastoral grazing areas (PGA), in Laikipia County, Kenya. Cattle and wild herbivores spatial distribution data were obtained from Kenya’s Department of Resources Survey and Remote Sensing (DRSRS). Spatial relationships between cattle and different wild herbivore guilds were analyzed using Ripley’s bivariate function. In PR, wild herbivore guilds showed significant attraction to cattle at short distances. In TRL, wild grazers, mixed feeders, megaherbivores, and medium-sized ungulates exhibited significant attraction to cattle. Additionally, repulsion was observed between cattle and browsers at short distances under this land-use system. In PGA, wild grazers, mixed feeders, and megaherbivores repelled strongly with cattle at short distances while browsers and medium-sized ungulates were significantly attracted to cattle. Cattle and wild herbivores were more randomly and independently distributed in PR than in TRL and PGA. These spatial relationships imply better coexistence between cattle and wild herbivores in PR than in TRL and PGA.
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    Influence of Council of Elders on Rural Land Tenure Dispute Resolution in Pokot Central Sub-County
    (INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS OF ACADEMICS & RESEARCH, 2021-06) Kandagor, Daniel
    The study sought to establish the influence of Council of elders on rural land tenure dispute resolution in Pokot Central Sub County.The study applied concurrent triangulation design since it is single-phase design in which researcher implemented thequantitative and qualitative methods during the same timeframe and with equal weight. The study was carried out in Pokotcentral Sub-County, West Pokot County.The target population for this study comprised of 150 Household heads, 20 chiefs andassistant chiefs and 5 land officers. The sample size was calculated by use of Yamane formula which gave a sample size of 83respondents. The questionnaires and interview schedule were the main instruments for data collection. The data were analyzedusing descriptive statistics while the data from interview schedule were summarized based on themes. The council of elderswas found to be successful in solving land disputes in Pokot central sub County. The study recommended that the capacity ofthe council of elders be enhanced through trainings to equip the with the government policy requirements so that
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    Efficacy of the Devolved System of Governance in Management of Land Use Conflicts in West Pokot County, Kenya
    (Scientific Research, 2021-03) Andrew Nyongesa Mung’ale; Frank Khachina Matanga; Edmond Were
    The devolved system of governance radically transformed structures and institutions of governance in Kenya. The system of governance is designed as a unitary state with the national government and 47 county governments. It establishes shared governance at national level and self-governance at county level. The system of governance transformed the administration and management of land use in Kenya. The Ministry of Land and Physical Planning, the county government and the National Land Commission have powers and authority to perform functions that improve administration and management of land use. The cooperation of the Ministry of Land, the county governments and the National Land Commission in administration and management of land is held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. Despite the establishment of the devolved system of governance, West Pokot County has continued to experience intractable and protracted land use conflicts in low lands of Chesegon, Sigor, Alale, Cheptulel, Kacheliba, Chepkopegh and Kanyarkwat as well as highlands of Chepararia, Lelan and Kapenguria. The study sought to assess the efficacy of the institutions of the devolved system of governance in the management of land use conflict in West Pokot County. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of the institutions of the devolved system of governance in management of land use conflicts in West Pokot County. The study used consociational democracy theory as expounded by Arend Lijphart. The theory postulates that internal conflicts in divided countries are managed by the transfer of power and resources from national government to autonomous regional government to harness shared governance and self-governance through participation, inclusion and effective service delivery. The study used descriptive and explanatory research design to describe the characteristics, explain and predict the relationship between institutions of the devolved system of governance and management of land use conflicts in West Pokot County. Data was collected using questionnaire, interview schedules, focused discussion and observation. It was analyzed using SPSS and coding of themes and findings presented using tables, charts and narrations. The study found out that the design of institutions in the devolved system of governance is effective in management of land use conflicts in West Pokot County.
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    The Role of Indigenous Conflict Resolution Mechanism Actors on Land Use Management in Pokot Central Sub-County
    (International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2018-04-04) John, Lomuk; Were, Edmond; Kandagor, Daniel
    International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences Vol. 8 , No. 4, April 2018, E-ISSN: 2222 -6990 © 2018 HRMARS 179 The Role of Indigenous Conflict Resolution Mechanism Actors on Land Use Management in Pokot Central Sub-County Lomuk Musto John Kapenguria, Kisii University, Kisii Email: lomukjohn87@gmail.com Prof. Edmond Were, Dr. Daniel Rotich Kandagor Kisii University, Kisii Email: dr.were@kisiiuniversity.ac.ke, drotichh@gmail.com Abstract This study sought to assess role of indigenous conflict resolution mechanism actors on land use management in Pokot Central Sub-County. The study employed qualitative and quantitative research designs. The target population was 781. The sample size was calculated using Roasoft sample size calculator, which gave 537 respondents. Simple random sampling was used to select households’ heads while purposive sampling was used to select national government administration, council of elders and lands officers and snowball sampling was used to select disputants. Interviews and questionnaire were the main instruments of data collection. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, while interviews were summarized based on themes. The study established that indigenous dispute resolution actors play a significant role in land use management. In dealing with cases arising from land use the council of elders play vital roles which include presiding over a case; in this case the elders select one elder amongst them to chair and the chair takes control of every undertaking in the course of the case, arbitration, mediation, decision making, peace-making, permit traditional oath and link the living with gods. This study recommends that; the community needs to incorporate women as council of elders, the government needs to come up with a structure framework specifying the roles played by different actors, make detailed legislation and policies to guide their operations and sensitise the community to appreciate and value this mechanism and realise its importance in discharging its mandate to the society
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    POTENTIALS OF LAND USE PLANNING IN RESOLVING LAND USE CONFLICTS AROUND PROTECTED AREAS IN KENYA –THE CASE OF NAIROBI NATIONAL PARK
    (University of Eldoret, 2019) Mwendwa, Grace A.
    Although land cover and land use changes are important processes that affect the ecological integrity of conservation areas, there are still gaps on how their planning is implemented so as to address the endless land-use conflicts that bedevil them. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess the potentials of land use planning in resolving land use conflicts around Nairobi National Park (NNP). Specifically, the study sought to (i) document different land use conflicts around NNP, (ii) assess trends of land use and land cover changes in the areas around NNP, (iii) examine the relationship between land use conflicts and land use/land cover changes around NNP and (iv) assess the impact of land use control systems on land use conflicts around NNP. A mixed method research approach involving use of qualitative and quantitative techniques was adopted. Through analysis of conflict maps of 2008 to 2016 and a household survey of 334 households, information on land use conflicts was elicited. Sets of Landsat images on land cover/land use for the period 1984 to 2016 were utilized to understand the spatial temporal dynamics of land cover/land use changes in the areas adjacent to the NNP. Analysis of land cover/land use and conflict maps was done using ERDAS IMAGINE 2015. Key informant interviews were utilized to acquire data on land use control systems which included land use conversions and land sub-divisions. Analysis of data acquired through survey and interviews was done with the assistance of IBM Statistical Package for Social Scientists. From the results, the main type of conflicts were the human-wildlife conflicts emanating from human activities being carried out in areas adjacent to the park which ultimately interfered with the park`s ecosystem. These activities were mainly residential and commercial uses of land. Most areas that experienced conflicts were found to be the areas south of the park, comprising the larger Olekajuado Trust Lands and in areas which fall under the wildlife dispersal areas. It was also observed that the rates of land use conflicts occurrences were higher during the rainy season. Moreover, findings revealed a cause-effect relationship between land use change and land use conflicts. There was significant reduction of agricultural lands with an increase in commercial and residential areas in the rangelands and into the buffer zone of the park both in Machakos and Kajiado Counties in the years 2012- 2014. During this time, conflicts around the park were on the rise too. Furthermore, proposed land use planning policies were not readilyimplemented and hence their inability to address challenges around protected areas. Thestudy concluded that while conflicts were as a result of human interference with areas around protected areas, land use and land cover changes and inadequate land use policies on the other hand, acted as catalysts and could be mitigated through planning and enforcement of the plans. The study recommends the adoption and integration of active and adaptive management to help protected area managers and policy makers reconcile environmental challenges.
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    GENDER, LAND OWNERSHIP AND FOOD PRODUCTION NEXUS IN MBEERE DRYLANDS, KENYA: IMPLICATIONS ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY
    (Open Access Publishing Group, 2018-10-25) Mwenzwa, Ezekiel; Cheserek, Grace; Kiptui, Mark
    Land ownership gives an individual the confidence and dignity required to be active in society. Indeed, land ownership and rights are important for effective utilization of farmland for food production to alleviate food insecurity and revitalize household welfare and national development. While the foregoing is the ideal situation, the reality is that culture and gender dictates who owns land especially when customary laws seem to override any legal and policy provisions regarding land ownership, access and control. In particular, women are largely land caretakers, with men owning most of the land, titled or otherwise. Based on the foregoing, this paper sought to identify gender and land ownership structures in the context of dryland farming and their implications on household food security in the Mbeere drylands of Embu County. It utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of social investigation and concluded that while many factors combine to determine food production and food security, inadequate access to and control of land and related resources by women in the Mbeere drylands is significant. Consequently and given the environmental and cultural milieu on which land is utilized, measures have been proposed to augment dryland farming and alleviate food insecurity in the Mbeere drylands.  Article visualizations:
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    Dammed and damned? Consequences of large scale land use Changes on environment, livelihood and food security in the Yala swamp ecosystem, Kenya, East Africa
    (International Journal of Advance Research, 2014-03-03) Abila, Romulus O.; Nthenge, Agatha M.
    African wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems and as such play an important role in ameliorating the effects of global warming,biodiversity conservation as well as major source of natural resources which drives many rural economies. Yala swamp is a large freshwater wetland, a recorgnized biodiversity hospot and support local livelihoods in the Lake Victoria basin in western Kenya.This study evaluated the socio - economic and environmental impacts of converting large parts of the swamp to farming to support perceivedfood security. Primary qualitative data was collected from semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews of randomly selectedstakeholders. One hundred questionnaires were administered to the stakeholders who included men, women and youth. Secondarydata was collected from published work, books, print and electronic media.The results indicate that although the conversion of the Yala swamp wetland is contributing in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), thereexists a strong conflict with the local community. Overall the local community and the environment have been negatively impacted andthere will be long term negative consequences regarding environmental degradation, food security and livelihood opportunities. This studyrecommend that the Kenya government should commission a new Environmental Impact Assessment and enact and implement a strongwetland policy. There is also need for awareness creation and sensitization to enhance participation of local communities in decisionmaking. Other livelihood diversification programmes to reduce dependence on the wetland are also recommended.
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    Influence of access to land and finances on Kenyan youth participation in agriculture
    (European Centre for Research Training and Development UK, 2014-07-16) Gichimu, Bernard M.; Njeru, Lucy K.
    The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector toachieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.
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    Homogeneous land-use sequences in heterogeneous small-scale systems of Central Kenya: Land-use categorization for enhanced greenhouse gas emission estimation
    (Elsevier, 2022) Mairura, Franklin S.; Musafiri, Collins M.; Kiboi, Milka N.; Macharia, Joseph M.; Ng'etich, Onesmus K.; Shisanya, Chris A.; Okeyo, Jeremiah M.; Okwuosa, Elizabeth A.; Ngetich, Felix K.
    The current understanding of the link between land management practices and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions is limited in the small-scale farm sector of sub-Sahara regions due to insufficient or fragmented land-use data. Land-use categories recognized in the national GHG inventories in Kenya are coarse. Therefore, they do not adequately account for the diversity in small-scale land uses. Characterization of land-use and knowledge of key drivers of land-use change is necessary to improve national GHG inventories in the SSA (Sub-Sahara Africa) region. We implemented a cross-sectional survey to characterize land-use and determine factors which influenced changes in land use within small-scale farms of Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. We sampled 300 farmers using multistage sampling and collected crop sequence recall data at plot level for three years (seven seasons). We grouped crop sequences into clusters using the ‘TraMineR’ R package. We derived four clusters including banana, tea, and declining fallows (cluster 1, 19.2% of plots), cereal-legume systems (cluster 2, 55.1%), fodder (cluster 3, 11.7%) and coffee (cluster 4, 14.0%). We observed higher N application rates in perennial cropping systems, than in annual crops, including cereal-legume systems. We observed that farmers in higher potential agro-ecological zones, male-managed farms, with higher per capita land area, higher remittances and higher total house-hold incomes, were associated with a higher propensity to adjust crop enterprises, leading to more unstable land-use sequences. Contrariwise, farmers with higher education, credit access, secure land tenure, increasing slope, good soil fertility, and longer farming experiences recorded a lower propensity to adjust their land uses, resulting in more stable crop sequences. Farmer socio-demographic characteristics influenced land-use change, which is directly linked with soil GHG emissions. Our findings propose the adoption of Tier II GHG quantification approaches which disaggregate between annual and perennial crop enterprises. GHG emissions are likely to be more generalizable in stable perennial crop systems than annual systems. Thus, better disaggregation of GHG sampling in annual crop systems is needed due to high diversity in crop and soil fertility management, and the dynamic nature of C and N cycling in these systems.