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    Knowledge and Awareness Determinants of Renewable Energy Technologies: A Cross Sectional Study of Rural Residents from Njoro Constituency, Nakuru County, Kenya
    (IOSR Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology, 2020-09-03) Kimani, Martin Njoroge; Makindi, Stanley Maingi; Aboud, Abdillahi A.
    Background:Awareness to renewable energy technologies (RET) can have multiple positive effects as it can be a precursor to greater RET adoption levels as well as promotion of the same. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of rural residents of Njoro constituency to the different renewable energy technologiesas a precursor to their adoption. Materials and Methods: The study was based on primary data collected through personal interviews with household heads in Njoro constituency, Nakuru County, Kenya. Two stage cluster random sampling was used to select the 200 households. The results showed that majority of the respondents exhibited a moderate level of knowledge and awareness to RETs. Results:Results of the study indicated that gender and education level had a significant effect on knowledge and awareness. It was also found that age and social-economic status did not have significant effect on the knowledge and awareness. Conclusion:The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance in strengthening communication to enhance knowledge and awareness of renewable energy technologies. The findings of this study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers and individuals to build the case for proactive promotion of RETS. Key Word:Knowledge and awareness; renewable energy technologies; rural househol
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    Effect of Process Techniques on Three Feedstocks Mix on Briquette Performance Properties
    (Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, 2022-02-16) Okwara, Wilberforce; Nyaanga, David; Aguko, Kabok; Nyaanga, Jane
    Energy availability at domestic level is a challenge across the world and especially in Africa. Firewood is the major source of energy for cooking for households in Kenya and there is need for a friendly sustainable environmental fuel. Carbonized biomass materials (briquettes) are considered a substitute. This study thus evaluated effect of selected briquetting techniques on briquettes’ performance properties. Milled charcoal dusts mixed in a ratio of 1:1:1 (Rice husk, maize cob, and sugarcane bagasse) with molasses binder in the ratio of 6:1 was hence ready for densification and agglomeration. The Water Boiling Test was used in determination of the briquette’s performance characteristics for various parameters. High (screw press); and low (drum agglomerator and hand making) pressure briquetting techniques were distinctly different in ignition time (minutes), time to boil (minutes) burning rate (g/min), specific fuel consumption (g/ml) and power output (kW) values as (4, 3, 3; 14, 12, 11: 0.8, 1.1, 1.3; 0.11, 0.13, 0.15; and 1.8, 1.4, 0.75). Diversified briquetting techniques, number and type of feedstocks are thus factors that influence performance characteristics of briquettes in converting the agricultural and or other wastes for useful energy application. This knowledge should enable users to make choices on techniques for optimum efficiency towards realization of Sustainable Development Goal Number #7 on affordable and clean energy.
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    Total electron content and scintillations over Maseno, Kenya, during high solar activity year
    (Springer Nature, 2019-09-06) Omondi, G. E.; Baki, P.; Ndinya, B. O.
    Proper characterization of total electron content (TEC) and scintillation is very important to global positioning system (GPS) users in communication, navigation, ionospheric or atmospheric studies. Quiet time variation of TEC is useful in the estimation and removal of ionospheric delay for global navigation satellite systems single-frequency positioning. During geomagnetic storms, the variations of ionosphere deviate from their quiet day pattern and can cause significant effects on short-term prediction of various ionospheric parameters. The dynamics of the ionosphere change from region to region; therefore, in order to evaluate and improve the performance of global models of the ionosphere, numerous studies of variations using measured ionospheric parameters from stations globally are useful. This paper presents for the first time variations in the TEC and scintillation at Maseno University (geomagnetic coordinates, 9.64°S, 108.59°E), Kenya, investigated using a NovAtelGSV400B GPS receiver for the high solar activity year 2014. The GPS-measured TEC values were compared with the modeled TEC values by the latest International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2016), with a view to evaluate the performance of this version of the model. The largest TEC values were observed from 1300 to 1500 h local time throughout the year with the largest diurnal values occurring in March equinox and smallest during June solstice. The largest TEC values are attributed to extreme ultraviolet radiation coupled with upward $$\vec{E} \times \vec{B}$$ plasma drift velocity. Nighttime enhancements in TEC attributed to the ‘fountain’ effect occurred during some months. Scintillation correlated with depletions in TEC occurred in the period between 1600 h local time to 1900 h local time (post-sunset) sector during some months, with the strongest value of − 0.91 being experienced in March equinox. Scintillation was absent during geomagnetic storms studied mainly as a result of the time of onset of the recovery phases of the storms. In addition, the geomagnetic storms were manifested in GPS-measured TEC as negative ionospheric storms. The IRI-2016 model gave a good prediction of measured values except for its overestimation of measured TEC in the months of May and June. Further, a new insight shown by the results is the ability of the IRI-2016 model to predict post-sunset TEC enhancements during some months contrary to previous versions reported by other researchers in East Africa. However, model is not quickly sensitive to transitions from one season to another. This result contributes to the improvement of the current IRI model by recommending the introduction of an input into the model that is sensitive to transitions in seasons in future versions of the model.
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    Occurrence characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles over Kisumu, Kenya during Solar maximum of Solar Cycle 24
    (2021-01-13) Nyongesa, Edward; Boniface, Ndinya; George, Omondi
    Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) are irregular plasma density depletions in the ambient electron density in the equatorial F-region ionosphere generated after sunset. EPBs are known to bring disruptions to telecommunication and navigation systems. This paper investigates the occurrence of EPBs over Kisumu, Kenya (Geomagnetic coordinates: 9.64o S, 108.59o E; Geographic coordinates: 0.02o S, 34.6o E) for a few selected quiet and storm days between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014 which was a high Solar activity period for Solar Cycle 24. The study brings out EPB occurrence pattern over Kisumu, Kenya for the selected quiet and storm days of 2013 and 2014. The Receiver Independent Exchange (RINEX) data was retrieved from the Kisumu high data-rate NovAtel GSV4004B SCINDA-GPS receiver. The data was unzipped and processed to obtain Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC), amplitude scintillation (S4) and Universal Time (UT) which were then fed into MATLAB to generate VTEC and S4 plots against UT for each selected quiet and storm day within the years 2013 and 2014. The Total Electron Content (TEC) depletion depths and S4 index values between 16:00 and 20:00 UT for each selected quiet and storm day were extracted from the VTEC and S4 plots and used to plot TEC depletion depths and S4 plots. The Rate of Change of TEC (ROT) and Rate of Change of TEC Index (ROTI) between 16:00 and 20:00 UT were generated from VTEC and used to plot ROT and the corresponding ROTI plots against UT. TEC depletion depths and ROTI values for each selected quiet and storm day between 16:00 and 20:00 UT were extracted and used to plot TEC depletion depths and ROTI plots and S4 index and ROTI plots. In this study, the enhancement of S4 index corresponded well with TEC depletions, increased fluctuation of ROT and higher ROTI values between 16:00UT and 20:00UT for most days. This correspondence was used in inferring the occurrence of EPBs during the selected quiet and storm days of the years 2013 and 2014. The obtained results showed that the highest EPB occurrence was during March equinox with 33.33% occurrence in the year 2013 and 30.76% occurrence in the year 2014, followed by the September equinox which had 20.38% occurrence in 2013 and 17.26% occurrence in 2014. The seasonal variation of EPB occurrence was attributed to the variation in the daytime E x B drift velocities. Larger E x B drift velocities resulted in increased EPB occurrence in the equinoctial period (March, April, August and September) and November solstice period (November and December) while lower E x B drift velocities resulted in reduced EPB occurrence in the June solstice period (June and July). The percentage EPB occurrence in the year 2013 was 6.49% while in the year 2014 was 4.32%. The storm period had percentage EPB occurrence of 21.42% in the year 2013 and 21.88% in the year 2014 while the quiet period had percentage EPB occurrence of 18.75% in the year 2013 and 7.89% in the year 2014. These results clearly showed that the percentage EPB occurrence was higher during the storm period than in the quiet period. Hence the development of EPBs was enhanced by geomagnetic activity through several competing dynamics such as Prompt Penetration Electric Field (PPEF), Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF) and reduction in electron density due to increased recombination rates. Â
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    Assessment of Local Domestic Solid Fuel Sources: A Kenyan Case Study in Kisii, Bomet and Narok Counties
    (Springer Link, 2023-06-01) Bosire, Josephate O.; Osano, Aloys M.; Maghanga, Justin K.; Forbes, Patricia B.C.
    Proximate analyses and decomposition profiles of solid fuels commonly used in Kenya were studied to determine their relative suitability for use as a clean and efficient source of energy in households. The moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon content of firewood, charcoal, and briquette samples were investigated, as well as their decomposition profiles under various temperature regimes. Except for the ash content of the briquette sample, which deviated slightly likely due to the presence of binders, all the values were within acceptable limits according to International Energy Agency and World Health Organization. Decomposition profiles revealed that mass change during combustion tends to occur primarily between 350 and 500 °C once the majority of the volatiles had been released. Briquette samples proved to be the most dependable and suitable household fuel due to their longer combustion time and lower volatile matter content, implying lower emissions.
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    Challenges of Accessing Electricity for ICT use in Kenyan Secondary Schools: A case of Nandi County.
    (IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), 2018-09-03) Katumbi, Nicodemus; Oribo, Calleb
    The use of ICT in the teaching and learning in local secondary schools in Nandi County has not been realized because of challenges arising from accessing electricity. This study focused on the electric power accessibility challenges facing the use of ICT equipment in secondary schools in Nandi County. The specific objectives of the study included; the determination of the use of alternative sources of energy in schools, the investigation of factors affecting the use of the alternative sources of energy in the powering of ICT equipment in schools, and the assessment of the schools principals’ attitudes towards the use of alternative sources of energy in local secondary schools. The study was conducted through a survey research design. Purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sample for the study. The data was analyzed by the use of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program. The findings of the study revealed that there was lack of electricity supply to many secondary schools; there were frequent power outages in the schools supplied with electricity; the cost of electric power use was high; the use of generators to generate electricity was expensive, and renewable sources of energy were not used to power ICT equipment in many secondary schools. The conclusions arrived at were that it was difficult to use ICT equipment in secondary schools in Nandi County because many secondary schools lacked access to electricity; there were frequent power outages in the schools supplied with electricity; cost of electricity was high; the cost of running generators were also high and there was lack of use of cost-effective alternative sources of energy. This study recommends that the government should supply electricity to all secondary schools, initiate renewable sources of energy projects to cater for the electricity deficit and the power distribution companies to use modern distribution methods to help reduce the power outages. Keywords: - ICT, Alternative
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    Simulating Pressure Distribution of a Horizontal Well in an oil Reservoir Subject to Single Edged and Bottom Constant Pressure
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Mutisya, Mutili Peter
    In this study the pressure distribution in an oil reservoir with a horizontal well is investigated. A horizontal well with single-edged and constant bottom pressure is outlined. A reservoir bounded with two constant pressure boundaries, like an edge and bottom water, requires that the production engineer should adhere diligently to a production schedule, developed by a reservoir engineer, for clean oil production to be possible. This means that arbitrary production practices through selection of production rates could lead to production of these external fluids. This can mar the economics of the project. Production schedules or plans show acceptable rates, well design and production time that can guarantee only clean oil production. In this study, pressure behaviour of a horizontal well drilled and completed in a reservoir subject to with simultaneous single-edged and bottom water drives is investigated in detail. All possible flow periods or patterns that can be exhibited by the well are determined. Fluid flow in oil reservoirs in real time is governed by a heterogenous diffusivity equation, which describes reservoir pressure as a function of reservoir, fluid and wellbore properties. To solve this unsteady state problem, Green’s functions were deployed to represent the boundaries of the reservoir selected for study. The Green’s functions selected are for flow from start of transient to late time, when all the external boundaries are felt. Newman product rule was used to derive a dimensionless pressure expression for the reservoir system oil flow. The source of pressure transient was production throughout. All the resulting integrals were performed numerically. MATLAB programming was used to plot the curves by applying spline functions interpolation. Influence of reservoir, fluid and wellbore properties on reservoir pressure was investigated in real time. To assist interpretation, dimensionless pressure derivatives were also computed. Near wellbore problems, like skin and wellbore storage, which affect well performance only at very early time, were not considered in the study. From the results, 𝑃𝐷 and 𝑃𝐷′ vary directly with ℎ𝐷 and inversely as 𝐿𝐷. The 𝑃𝐷′ gradually reduces to zero when 𝑃𝐷 begins to exhibit a constant trend. 𝑃𝐷′ vary inversely with ℎ𝐷 and 𝑦𝑒𝐷 at all flow times. The number of flow periods varies with reservoir size, well length and production time. The time at which the 𝑃𝐷′ starts to exhibit a downward trend is the external fluid breakthrough time. The breakthrough time is affected by well design. Longer wells exhibit delayed breakthrough time because of lower pressure drawdown associated with increased well length. If production rate is sustained for any particular well design, the well will completely water-out. Finally, infinite conductivity 𝑥𝐷=0.732 and uniform flux condition do not really affect 𝑃𝐷 and 𝑃𝐷′ at early time.
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    Manihot glaziovii-Bonded and Bioethanol-Infused Charcoal Dust Briquettes: A New Route of Addressing Sustainability, Ignition, and Food Security Issues in Briquette Production
    (Springer, 2020-03-01) Gesase, Lynder E.; King’ondu, Cecil K.; Jande, Yusufu A. C.
    Most of the citizens in developing countries use charcoal for domestic cooking and small-scale enterprises because of its high calorific value, less smoke, and easy to transport. However, a lot of charcoal dust is generated from charcoal trading activities. The dust is left as heaps of solid wastes in urban areas and sometimes thrown in water streams, thus being a nuisance to both humans and the environment. This study aimed to develop and characterize charcoal dust briquettes bonded with wild cassava Manihot glaziovii and also use of bioethanol to enhance briquette ignition. The percentages of binder to charcoal dust were varied from 5 to 30%. Proximate analysis, density, ignition time, burning rate, burning time, and calorific value were determined. The density of the produced briquettes ranged from 0.67 ± 0 to 0.83 ± 0.1 g/cm3; percentage of moisture content varied from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 4.2 ± 0.2; ash content varied from 19.6 ± 0.6 to 21.5 ± 0; percentage volatile matter ranged from 19.8 ± 0.3 to 24.3 ± 0.4; and percentage fixed carbon ranged from 51.9 ± 1.1 to 55.3 ± 0.2. The calorific value ranged from 17.7 ± 0.7 to 19.7 ± 0.3 MJ/kg, ignition time 139 to 163 s, and burning rate 0.3 to 0.7 g/min while water boiling time varied from 14 to 19 min and burning time from 85 to 116 min. Ignition test revealed that bioethanol ratio of 15 mL to 56 g of the briquette showed the best briquette ignition characteristics. It was further found that the amount of binder used influenced the combustion properties of the briquettes. This study also showed that charcoal dust could be compacted to briquettes using Manihot glaziovii as a binder. The overall performance of the briquettes showed that 5% binder gave the best results in terms of combustion characteristics.
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    Adoption of green energy technologies in selected peri-urban and rural areas of Makueni and Machakos counties, Kenya
    (World Journal of Research and Review, 2023-05) Muloo, Samson; Kimiti, Jacinta M.; Mwinzi, Muusya; Muthike, George
    Many peri-urban and rural households usetraditional stoves which have low energy use efficiency leadingto wasteful use of woodfuel, increase in indoor air pollution andputting more pressure on biomass sources. Energy savingdevices have been introduced which are environmentallyfriendly and economical. The main objective of this study was toassess levels of adoption of green energy technologies in selectedperi-urban and rural areas of Makueni and Machakos Counties,Multistage sampling technique was used whereby; locations andsub-locations were selected purposefully. Households from foursub-locations were chosen using simple random sampling. Atotal of 214 households in the four selected study areas wereinterviewed. The study used questionnaires and interviewschedules for data collection. The collected data was coded andentered into the computer for analysis using the StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS) and statistics and datasoftware (STATA) presented using tables. Utilization of metalcharcoal energy device was higher than that of other charcoaldevices in Unoa area (63.1%). Family size had a significanteffect on use of LPG (χ2 = 22.010, P = 0.001) and electric energytechnology (χ2 = 20.482, p = 0.002). The study results on theprediction of future charcoal energy devices adoption showedthat in the next 30 years’ majority of the households will stillprefer Kenya ceramic charcoal stoves to the maendeleo charcoalstoves. The outcome of the research is useful to manystakeholders including the government, Ministries ofAgriculture and Energy, Environmentalists, Market Suppliersof green energy devices and Researchers.
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    Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Wells at Mokowe Village in Lamu County
    (Kenya Aquatica Journal, 2019-12-30) Saidi, Saidi S.; Maghanga, Justin K.; Guyo, Paul M.
    Inadequate supply of fresh piped water at Mokowe Village in Lamu County has forced the residents todepend on alternative water sources such as shallow wells for their daily needs such as shallow wells.However, most of the wells are located near residential houses less than 30 m from the pit latrines. Thiscloseness contaminates the aquifer that supplies water to the wells. Gastrointestinal infections areamong the challenges experienced in Mokowe Village. This study investigated the quality of waterin shallow wells at different times of the day. The objective of the study was to evaluate the physicochemicalparameters and microbial contamination of water from two main shallow wells, namelySalim Hassan and Baoni, with respect to their distance from the pit latrines. Water samples from Himwatap was collected as a control. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E.coli) were analyzed by the mostprobable number (MPN) method. Physicochemical parameters analyzed were fluorides, nitrates, iron,sodium, potassium, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, magnesium, calcium and total hardness,These were determined using DR 6000 Spectrophotometer, flame photometer, pH meter gravimetricanalysis and wet methods (titration) respectively. Odour and taste were determined using organolepticmethods while colour was analyzed using a colour comparator. Total coliforms and Escherichia colilevels in the two wells were very high in the rainy season compared to dry season while Himwa tapwater had no E.coli. However, total coliforms counts in Himwa tap water was beyond the permissiblelevels given by National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). Chloride, nitrate, sodium, potassiumand calcium were beyond the allowable Maximum Contamination Level (MCL) provided byNEMA. Levels of pH for all the water samples were within the NEMA standards. The results indicate thatwater from the two main shallow wells were highly contaminated hence prompt chlorination and waterquality monitoring should be undertaken. It was recommended that the public health office shouldensure compliance on distance from the buildings when a new well is being constructed.