Food Supply

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    Supply Chain Management Practices, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty
    (European Journal of Business and Management, 2016) Lagat Charles; Koech Josphine; Kemboi Ambrose
    Abstract In competitive business environments companies have identified the need to redesign their supply chain management practices to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. This study sought to determine the effects of supply chain management practices on customer satisfaction and loyalty in selected supermarkets in Kenya. The study used systems thinking theory and it employed a survey research design. The target population was a total of 1,208 managers and procurement officers in the selected supermarkets. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of respondents. Findings indicated that strategic supplier partnership, supply postponement, customer relationship and information sharing had significant and positive effect on customer satisfaction which also increases customer loyalty. The study concludes that supply chain management practices enhances customer satisfaction in the supermarkets. The study recommends that there is need for companies to work jointly with suppliers in order to improve customer satisfaction and improve performance.
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    Preliminary Study on The Food and Feeding Habits of Schilbe Mystus (Linn., 1762) in River Nyando
    (ICIPE SCIENCE, 1994) Reuben Omondi; James Ogari
    Schilbe mystus (Butlerfish) is one of the "endangered species" of Lake Victoria, whose fishery was once of commercial importance. The annual landings have declined from about 400 mt in 1968 to a bare 15 mt in 1991. The average size of the species is smaller than that reported by Greenwood (1 966). During the study, the size range sampled was 11.2 to 25.6 cm. fork length with the majority measuring 14.0-15.0 cm FL. The food and feeding habits of the fish are discussed. Study on the gut content shows that Schilbemystuspreys mainly on insects with chironomid larvae as the dominant Prey.
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    Genetic Diversity of Kenyan Native Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus)
    (Taylor & Francis Online, 2017-01-20) Ojwang D. Otieno; Calvin Onyango; Justus Mungare Onguso; Lexa G. Matasyoh; Bramwel W. Wanjala; Mark Wamalwa; Jagger J.W. Harvey
    Members of the genus Pleurotus, also commonly known as oyster mushroom, are well known for their socioeconomic and biotechnological potentials. Despite being one of the most important edible fungi, the scarce information about the genetic diversity of the species in natural populations has limited their sustainable utilization. A total of 71 isolates of Pleurotus species were collected from three natural populations: 25 isolates were obtained from Kakamega forest, 34 isolates from Arabuko Sokoke forest and 12 isolates from Mount Kenya forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to thirteen isolates of locally grown Pleurotus species obtained from laboratory samples using five primer pair combinations. AFLP markers and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the ribosomal DNA were used to estimate the genetic diversity and evaluate phylogenetic relationships, respectively, among and within populations. The five primer pair combinations generated 293 polymorphic loci across the 84 isolates. The mean genetic diversity among the populations was 0.25 with the population from Arabuko Sokoke having higher (0.27) diversity estimates compared to Mount Kenya population (0.24). Diversity between the isolates from the natural population (0.25) and commercial cultivars (0.24) did not differ significantly. However, diversity was greater within (89%; P > 0.001) populations than among populations. Homology search analysis against the GenBank database using 16 rDNA ITS sequences randomly selected from the two clades of AFLP dendrogram revealed three mushroom species: P. djamor, P. floridanus and P. sapidus; the three mushrooms form part of the diversity of Pleurotus species in Kenya. The broad diversity within the Kenyan Pleurotus species suggests the possibility of obtaining native strains suitable for commercial cultivation.
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    Haematological Response of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Different Concentrations of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013-08) Safina M. Musa; Christopher Mulanda Aura; Erick Ochieng Ogello; Reuben Omondi; Harrison Charo-Karisa; Jonathan Mbonge Munguti
    The present study set out to investigate the haematological effects of tobacco leaf dust on African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fingerlings, with a mean weight of 3.01 ± 1.25 g using “static renewal bioassay system” during a 120-hour bioassay exposure period. Water quality parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen significantly decreased while total alkalinity and conductivity increased significantly in the exposed media, compared to the control test. Leucocytes counts increased significantly while erythrocytes counts decreased significantly with increasing concentration of tobacco dust. Packed cell volume significantly reduced with increase in the concentration of tobacco dust. Haematological examination showed that there was destruction of the erythrocytes production, and the concentration of haemoglobin was much lower in the exposed fish compared to the control depicting an anaemic condition. The results could provide baseline information for the safe limits of using tobacco leaf dust in fish ponds; hence 1.56 g L−1 concentration of tobacco leaf dust was recommended for pond preparation for Clarias gariepinus fingerling stocking. For better survival rates, the fish should only be introduced in the pond after three days of tobacco application.
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    Factors Influencing Adoption of Pigeon Pea and its Impact on Household Food Security in Machakos County, Kenya
    (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 2022-03-11) Emongor R. A.; Matiri F. M.; Magana A.; Wamaitha J.; Daniel A. M.; Mulindo J.
    A household survey was carried out in Kalama, Mwala and Yatta Sub-counties of Machakos County Kenya to obtain data on the current situation of pigeon pea value chain. A total of 414 households were interviewed in the month of October 2020. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Logit Model to determine factors that influence adoption of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L) using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20 Software. The HFIAS model was used to determine the impact of adoption of Pigeon Pea on household food security. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that there was low adoption of the Pigeon pea technologies and this implies that more needs to be done in creating awareness of the improved Pigeon pea varieties. The Logistic model results showed two factors that significantly influence adoption of Pigeon pea varieties by farmers. These were membership to a community group and access to credit. More needs to be done to increase adoption of the new/improved varieties in Machakos County, Kenya.
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    Comparative analysis of communication channels for diffusion and adoption of quality protein maize: the case of Kathonzweni and Kirinyaga, Kenya
    (University of Nairobi, 2015) Carolyne Khalayi Wafula
    Despite the use of various communication strategies in Kenya, access and use of agricultural information by rural farming communities and other actors along the agricultural information chain is inadequate to cope with challenges in crop production leading to high levels of poverty. In Kirinyaga and Makueni counties, poverty levels of people living in urban areas are 26 % and 35% respectively, with about 67% of the rural populations living below the poverty line. This study, therefore, investigated how different communication channels used in disseminating new or proven agricultural technologies in Africa by the DONATA project among the smallholder farmers in Kirinyaga in Central and Kathonzweni in Eastern counties of Kenya have influenced the farmers decision to adopt quality protein maize (QPM). Random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the survey and primary data collected using structured questionnaires which involved 210 farmers, comprising of 110 from Kathonzweni and from 100 Kirinyaga. Descriptive statistics, covariance analysis and binary logistic regression were applied through SPSS application to ascertain the factors contributing to diffusion and adoption of QPM technologies. The levels of quality protein maize awareness in Kathonzweni were much higher 100% compared to Kirinyaga 98%. Farmer to farmer and farmer groups in Kirinyaga and extension services in Kathonzweni play a major role in farmer awareness of quality protein maize technologies. The results from the binary logistic regression indicates socio economic characteristics in Kathonzweni and Kirinyaga such as age and marital status play a big role in diffusion and adoption of quality protein maize. Field days in both study regions contributed significantly to increased QPM adoption. Farming was found to be the main source of income with 97.3% in Kathonzweni and 98% Kirinyaga. Lack of seed and climate change were major constraints affecting agricultural production in the study areas. It is therefore recommended that farmer field days, demonstrations, farmer field schools, farmer to farmer and group meetings continue being promoted through increased extension visits, and investing in farmer education via seminars, as vehicles of disseminating agricultural innovations. Information and communication technologies like radio, mobile phone and television should be used to complement the conventional channels which promote access to quality protein maize information. This will increase adoption, hence increased production and high yields which will be part of the solution to food insecurity and raising poverty levels in the
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    Information sharing in African perishable agri-food supply chains: a systematic literature review and research agenda
    (Emerald Insight, 2023-01-01) Obonyo, Edwin; Formentini, Marco; Ndiritu, S. Wagura; Naslund, Dag
    Purpose The aim of this paper is to provide a review of state-of-the-art literature on information sharing in the context of African perishable agri-food supply chains (AFSCs). In doing so, the authors hope to stimulate further research and advance both theory and practice on African perishable AFSCs, which is a relevant, but under-investigated context. Design/methodology/approach The authors’ systematic literature review covers a period of 21 years (2000–2021). After providing the bibliometric and methodological insights related to this sample of literature, the authors provide a detailed analysis and discussion of the key aspects of information sharing in African perishable AFSCs, based on a review framework grounded in the information sharing literature. Findings The authors’ review revealed that information sharing in African AFSCs is still in its nascent stage. Findings are based on four themes of (1) why share information (mainly to gain market access), (2) what information is shared (price and market information) (3) how it is shared (still traditional communication, with limited adoption of digital technologies?) and (4) antecedents, drivers and barriers (technology adoption and socio-economic background of Africans). Research limitations/implications This paper outlines a research agenda for advancing the theory on information sharing in AFSCs. Furthermore, the review highlights the importance of context, supply chain structure, relationships, product characteristics and culture in studying AFSCs. Originality/value A review on information sharing in African perishable AFSCs does not appear to exist in operations and supply chain management (O&SCM) and agribusiness journals.
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    Are there systematic gender differences in the adoption of sustainable agricultural intensification practices? Evidence from Kenya
    (Elsevier, 2014-12-01) Ndiritu, S. Wagura; Kassie, Menale; Shiferaw, Bekele
    This paper uses sex-disaggregated survey data at the plot level to test whether there are systematic gender differences in the adoption of multiple sustainable intensification practices (SIPs) in Kenya. We analyze plot level adoption decisions of SIPs by male, female or joint plot managers within the household, controlling for household characteristics, asset wealth and land quality factors that condition investments in intensification options. Using a multivariate probit model, we find gender differences in the adoption pattern for some SIPs. Compared to male plot mangers, female managers are less likely to adopt minimum tillage and animal manure in crop production, indicating the existence of certain socioeconomic inequalities and barriers for female farmers. However, we find no gender differences in the adoption of soil and water conservation measures, improved seed varieties, chemical fertilizers, maize-legume intercropping, and maize-legume rotations.
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    Climate variability and post-harvest food loss abatement technologies: evidence from rural Tanzania
    (IDEAS, 2019-04-18) Ndiritu, Simon Wagura; Ruhinduka, Remidius
    This paper focuses on improved storage and preservation technologies as an adaptation strategy in response to climate change. We also study the trade-off between improved cereal storage technologies and the preservation techniques among rural households in Tanzania. We find that climate variables significantly influence farmers’ choice of improved storage technologies and preserving decisions. Using a bivariate probit model, we find that modern storage technologies and preservation measures are substitutes. Farmers can significantly reduce annual costs associated with preservation by adopting (usually long lasting) modern storage facilities.
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    Impact of climate change adaptation on food security: evidence from semi-arid lands, Kenya
    (Springer Nature Food, 2021-07-28) Ndiritu, S. Wagura; Muricho, Geoffrey
    The management of rangelands, including climate change adaptation strategies, is primarily responsible for stimulating livestock productivity, which consequently improves food security. This paper investigates the impact of climate change adaptations on food security among pastoralists in semi-arid parts of Kenya, who have not received due attention to date. Using an endogenous switching regression model, the current study revealed that pastoralists’ food security increased significantly when they employed measures to adapt to climate change. The study results also showed that wealthier households and those with more livestock were more food-secure than comparatively poorer households or those with less livestock. Furthermore, the study uncovered a high prevalence of food security among more educated households. The paper therefore recommends that, in Kenya’s semi-arid lands, where pastoralism is the primary means of livelihood, policies advocating adaptations to climate change should be strengthened. Also fundamental to building pastoralists’ adaptation strategies are the consistent monitoring of climate change, the use of early warning systems, and the communication of pertinent information to farmers—and particularly to pastoralists.
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    Energy for food, livelihoods, and resilience: An integrated development agenda for Africa
    (Elsevier, 2021-04-23) Shirley, Rebekah
    This article explores the real-time interactions between agriculture, energy, economy, trade, climate resilience, and livelihoods across sub-Saharan Africa and the implications for 2050. It explains the opportunities for an intersectional approach to interventions at the food-energy nexus and provides recommendations for near-term actions urgently needed to safeguard Africa’s future.
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    Identifying high-priority impact areas for electricity service to farmlands in Uganda through geospatial mapping
    (Elsevier, 2021-09-01) Shirley, Rebekah; Liu, Yifei; Kakande, Josephine; Kagarura, Mark
    This article explores the food-energy nexus in sub–Saharan Africa by studying opportunities for improved agricultural productivity through electricity access. The study fills an acknowledged data gap by using geospatial analysis to identify priority areas for serving on- and near-farm electricity demand, using maize and coffee farming in Uganda as a case study. We use publicly available data on electrification infrastructure and crop statistics along with a select portfolio of variables, to identify areas where least-cost electricity delivery models intersect with agricultural needs, thereby highlighting target areas for further investigation. These findings are validated by community surveys in a key farming district. The analysis finds significant areas of underserved staple and cash crop farmlands can be served through grid and mini-grid electricity access within the next ten years. Such framing provides a useful lens for informing near-term interventions, and the paper concludes with practical recommendations.
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    Comparative ecological perspectives on food security by Abanyole of Kenya
    (International Journal of Ecology and Ecosolution, 2015-05-25) Wandere, Donald O.; Egesah, Omar B.
    This paper focuses on implications of sustained food deprivation situations on the behavioural patterns of the Abanyole of Western Kenya. Using an ethnographic approach, the paper examines two ecosystems occupied by the Abanyole; the first ecosystem manifests typical indigenous, socio-cultural features, while the second epitomizes a cosmopolitan outlook. The study uses a comparative ethnography to show that while land is the main means of production in the two ecological niches, the amount of this critical resource that is available for household dispensation, and the strategies employed to exploit it, varies. This, the study finds, has implications for food security situations among households in the two areas. In addition, when faced with food deficit situations, the Abanyole resort to varying and contrasting coping mechanisms distinct to each ecosystem.
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    Supporting the capacities and knowledge of small-holder farmers in Kenya for sustainable agricultural futures: A Citizen Science pilot project
    (UCL express, 2023-12-01) Davies, Matthew; Haklay, Muki; Kiprutto, Timothy; Laws, Megan; Lewis, Jerome; Lunn-Rockliffe, Samuel; McGlade, Jaqueline; Moreu, Marcos; Yano, Andrew; Kipkorir, Wilson
    Sub-Saharan Africa is often presented as the continent most vulnerable to climatic change with major repercussions for food systems. Coupled with high rates of population growth and existing nutritional deficiencies, the need to enhance food production across the continent is thus seen as a major global imperative. We argue here, however, that current models of agricultural development in Eastern Africa often marginalise critical small-holder knowledge from the process of future agricultural design due to a lack of a methodological tools for engagement. This paper addresses this by outlining a potential means to capture and share locally produced agronomic information on a large scale. We report on a ‘Citizen Science’ pilot study that worked with smallholder farmers in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, western Kenya, to co-design a mobile application using the well-developed Sapelli platform that easily allows farmers to identify, record and geolocate cropping patterns and challenges at multiple stages in the agricultural calendar using their own understandings. The pilot project demonstrated the technical and epistemological benefits of co-design, the abilities of smallholder farmers to co-design and use smartphone applications, and the potential for such technology to produce and share valuable agricultural and ecological knowledge in real time. Proof-of-concept data illustrates opportunities to spatially and temporally track and respond to challenges related to climate, crop disease and pests. Such work expounds how smallholder farmers are a source of largely untapped ecological and agronomic expert knowledge that can, and should, be harnessed to address issues of future agricultural resilience and food system sustainability.
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    Ensuring societal considerations are met when translating science into policy for sustainable food system transformation
    (Elsevier, 2023-07-01) Singh, Brajesh K.; Fraser, Evan D. G.; Arnold, Tom; Biermayr-Jenzano, Patricia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; Brunori, Gianluca; Caron, Patrick; De Schutter, Olivier; Fabbri, Karen; Fan, Shenggen; Fanzo, Jessica; Gajdzinska, Magdalena; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Hugas, Marta; McGlade, Jacqueline; Nellemann, Christine; Njuki, Jemimah; Tuomisto, Hanna L.; Tutundjian, Seta; Wesseler, Justus; Sonnino, Roberta; Webb, Patrick
    BackgroundA food system transformation is needed to address food and nutrition security, minimise impacts on planetary health, reduce climate change emissions, and contribute to equity, diversity, and the Sustainable Development Goals.Scope and approachThis paper summarizes findings of the European Commission's High Level Expert Group on Food Systems Science, which reviewed obstacles that prevent food systems policy from achieving society-wide impacts. These barriers include knowledge and translation gaps in food-related science-policy-interfaces (SPIs), insufficient attention to the priorities of diverse stakeholders, and a failure to adequately consider equity, diversity, political economy, and societal engagements.Key findings & conclusionsThree potential pathways can ensure science and policy support food systems transformation: (1) Adapt the current SPI landscape with extra resources and a wider mandate to ensure coordinated action across the full food system, (2) Enhance the current policy landscape with a range of multisectoral taskforces designed to fulfill specific functions such as creating an enhanced food systems data portal, and (3) Establish a “network of networks” to provide both global coordination as well as organize defined agendas at global through to regional scales. In embarking on these pathways, a revised science-policy-society landscape (SPSIs) should deliver the following core functions: (1) Engage and empower multi-stakeholder dialogue; (2) Build capacity at multiple scales to translate evidence into tangible real-world outcomes; (3) Ensure access to openly accessible data for the entire food system; (4) Use models, forecasts, and scenario building exercises to explore the potential future of food systems; (5) Produce assessment reports and policy publications; and (6) Establish fora for diplomacy that will be empowered to create standards set targets and establish policy.
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    Food systems transformation requires science–policy–society interfaces that integrate existing global networks and new knowledge hubs
    (Springer Nature Food, 2022-12-16) Singh, Brajesh K.; Fraser, Evan D. G.; Arnold, Tom; Biermayr-Jenzano, Patricia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; Brunori, Gianluca; Caron, Patrick; De Schutter, Olivier; Fabbri, Karen; Fan, Shenggen; Fanzo, Jessica; Gajdzinska, Magdalena; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Hugas, Marta; McGlade, Jacqueline; Nellemann, Christine; Njuki, Jemimah; Tuomisto, Hanna L.; Tutundjian, Seta; Wesseler, Justus; Sonnino, Roberta; Webb, Patrick
    Sustainable food systems are key to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but food systems fall short on multiple fronts as they place pressure on natural capital and ecosystem services while generating significant greenhouse gas emissions. To future-proof food systems, the United Nations Food Systems Summit (UNFSS) called for a transformation of food systems that guarantees equitable access to affordable, healthy, and safe food, produced in fair and environment-friendly ways. Such a transformation will be challenging1,2 . Efficient science–policy interfaces (SPIs) that effectively bridge the local to global span of food systems in a coordinated way will be key to transformation. Effective SPIs need to support six key functions: forecasting and monitoring, capacity building, data collection, independent assessment, engagement and diplomacy3,4 . We, the members of a European Commission high-level expert group (HLEG), have suggested three pathways to achieve effective SPIs: (a) strengthening and adapting existing SPIs with additional resources and a broader mandate to engage across the food sector and across scales and engage with society, (b) enhancing the multilateral institutions’ capacity to cooperate with member states and fund a series of task forces to fill priority knowledge and data gaps, and (c) creating a global coordination hub comprising multilateral institutions through collective investment in a ‘network of networks’3
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    Farmer Led Regenerative Agriculture for Africa
    (UCL Institute for Global Prosperity: London, UK., 2020-08-03) Lunn-Rockliffe, S.; Davies, M.; Moore, H.; Wilman, A.; McGlade, J.; Bent, D.
    Regenerative Agriculture offers the potential to create a new farming future for Africa. The radical transformation of our agricultural systems presents the opportunity to revive ecosystems, amplify biodiversity and improve dietary diversity, positive impacts that will cascade across sectors and create new pathways to more prosperous, resilient and sustainable futures (Moore 2021). The window of opportunity to undertake such a transformation is now. The future of industrial agricultural practice looks bleak, with food production oriented around market growth and global food security through high yields. These contribute to the erosion of ecosystems, depletion of biodiversity, reduction of dietary diversity and vulnerability to future climate extremes (IPCC 2018; IPBES 2019). When coupled with population growth, weak financial and welfare systems, widening inequalities and the persistence of malnutrition, humanity’s future and its relationship with the planet looks dire. The need for an alternative farming future premised on Regenerative Agriculture has thus never been more imperative.
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    Enhancing science–policy interfaces for food systems transformation
    (Springer Nature Food, 2021-11) Singh, Brajesh K.; Arnold, Tom; Biermayr-Jenzano, Patricia; Broerse, Jacqueline; Brunori, Gianluca; Caron, Patrick; De Schutter, Olivier; Fan, Shenggen; Fanzo, Jessica; Fraser, Evan; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Hugas, Marta; McGlade, Jacqueline; Nellemann, Christine; Njuki, Jemimah; Sonnino, Roberta; Tuomisto, Hanna L.; Tutundjian, Seta; Webb, Patrick; Wesseler, Justus
    The anticipated failure of many countries to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 necessitates the assessment of science–policy engagement mechanisms for food systems transformation. We explore options for enhancing existing partnerships, mandates and resources — or reimagining a new mission — for science–policy interfaces.
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    Modulation of energy homeostasis in maize and Arabidopsis to develop lines tolerant to drought, genotoxic and oxidative stresses
    (Ghent University, 2018-02-01) Njuguna, Elizabeth; Coussens, Griet; Aesaert, Stijn; Neyt, Piet; Anami, Sylvester; Lijsebettens, Mieke Van
    Abiotic stresses cause crop losses worldwide that reduce the average yield by more than 50%. Due to the high energy consumed to enhance the respiration rates, the excessive reactive oxygen species release provokes cell death and, ultimately, whole plant decay. A metabolic engineering approach in maize (Zea mays) altered the expression of two poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation metabolic pathway proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and ADP-ribose-specifIc Nudix hydrolase (NUDX) genes that play a role in the maintenance of the energy homeostasis during stresses. By means of RNAi hairpin silencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing strategies, the PARP expression in maize was downregulated or knocked down. The Arabidopsis NUDX7 gene and its two maize homologs, ZmNUDX2 and ZmNUDX8, were overexpressed in maize and Arabidopsis. Novel phenotypes were observed, such as significant tolerance to oxidative stress and improved yield in Arabidopsis and a trend of tolerance to mild drought stress in maize and in Arabidopsis. Key words: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, Nudix hydrolase, CRISPR/Cas9, maize, oxidative stress, drought stress
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    Unlocking Climate Finance Potential for Climate Adaptation: Case of Climate Smart Agricultural Financing in Sub Saharan Africa
    (Springer, 2020-10-24) Mungai, Edward M.; Ndiritu, S. Wagura; Da Silva, Izael
    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges faced by the world today. Adverse impacts of climate change are visible across sectors like agriculture and other natural resources due to increasing average temperature and changing weather patterns....