Agroforestry

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    Agricultural Residues as an Alternative Source of Fibre for the Production of Paper in Kenya A Review
    (Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2021-07-10) Otieno J. O; Okumu T. N; Adalla Morelly; Ogutu Fredrick; Oure Boniface
    Abstract The pulp and paper industry is primarily dependent on fibrous wood for pulp and paper production. However, this over-dependence on fibrous wood poses serious environmental challenges such as the diminishing of the fibrous wood stocks, deforestation, emission of greenhouse gases, and global warming. Therefore, to mitigate these environmental challenges associated with its utilization for paper and pulp production, other sustainable raw material sources can also be considered for the production of paper and pulp. There are enormous benefits associated with the utilization of non-wood fibres as an alternative and sustainable raw materials source for the production of paper and pulp. These benefits have in the recent past prompted millers in China, India, Brazil, and the USA to consider the utilization of non-wood fibres in paper and pulp production. In Kenya, the pulp and paper industry is very much dependent on fibrous wood for production and the industry is yet to fully embrace the utilization of nonwood fibres for paper and pulp production. Further, the dependence on fibrous wood has contributed significantly to the decline of paper pulp and paper production, deforestation, and rise in paper importations due to insufficient raw material supplies. The importation of paper and pulp products has further led to the collapse of the paper industry in Kenya. The sector stands a chance of revival and vibrancy through the utilization of the abundant agricultural residues and feedstocks lying in the agricultural fields across the country. Similar experiences elsewhere have proved that the abundance of agricultural waste can be utilized for the production of paper and pulp due to their excellent fibre content for specialty papers, and easy pulpability. The agricultural residues are therefore considered a quintessential alternative and sustainable source of raw materials for the pulp and paper industry. Moreover, their utilization will mitigate environmental impacts such as deforestation, climate change, and pollution .
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    Flavour Compounds in Backslop Fermented Uji (An East African Sour Porridge)
    (ResearchGate, 2000-12) Onyango Calvin; Heike Raddatz; Bley Thomas
    The potential of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentocaceus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, different mixtures of these lactic acid bacteria and backslop starter cultures to acidify and form flavour compounds in uji was investigated. The bacteria chosen are the most prevalent species in fermented uji. Flavour compounds were analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID with HP5 non-polar column and DB-Wax polar columns respectively. Use of pure single or mixed cultures did not improve the flavour profile of fermented uji. On the basis of peak areas of unfermented and fermented uji aromagrams, pentanal, hexanal and hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic, oleic and octadecanoic acids were found to be native to the flours, while 3-methyl-1-butanol, octanoate, nonanoate, hexadecanoate, linoleate, oleate and hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic and nonanoic acids were synthesised during submerged culture fermentation. Ethanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, lactic acid and ethylacetate were synthesised prior to fermentation and synthesis of these compounds continued during fermentation.
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    Agriculture Projects Offered for Examinations in Secondary Education:: Perceptions towards Factors Influencing Initiation and Implementation in Kisii District,Kenya Paperback
    (‎ LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2012-03-14) Nyang'au Martha K.
    Agriculture projects were introduced in Secondary Education examinations in 1989 to equip learners with basic skills for self-reliance. However, the primary objective is often down played. The initiation and implementation of the projects might be poor since schools struggle to exploit the examination process at the expense of equipping learners with the practical skills; hence there is need for improvement. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education should organize regular workshops to develop and sustain the positive perceptions of school principals and agriculture teachers towards factors influencing project initiation and implementation. And to encourage co-operation among them during initiation. Further, the Ministry, should incorporate in the training curriculum for agriculture educators the factors perceived to be influencing the projects. School principals, and possibly Board of Governors should provide financial resources to improve and sustain positive perceptions of learners towards the factors influencing implementation of the projects
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    Haematological Response of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Different Concentrations of Tobacco (Nicotiana Tobaccum) Leaf Dust
    (International Scholarly Reseach, 2013-09-17) Safina M. Musa; Aura Christopher Mulanda; Ogello Erick Ochieng; Omondi Reuben; Charo-Karisa Harrison; Munguti Jonathan Mbonge
    The present study set out to investigate the haematological effects of tobacco leaf dust on African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fingerlings, with a mean weight of 3.01 ± 1.25 g using “static renewal bioassay system” during a 120-hour bioassay exposure period. Water quality parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen significantly decreased while total alkalinity and conductivity increased significantly in the exposed media, compared to the control test. Leucocytes counts increased significantly while erythrocytes counts decreased significantly with increasing concentration of tobacco dust. Packed cell volume significantly reduced with increase in the concentration of tobacco dust. Haematological examination showed that there was destruction of the erythrocytes production, and the concentration of haemoglobin was much lower in the exposed fish compared to the control depicting an anaemic condition. The results could provide baseline information for the safe limits of using tobacco leaf dust in fish ponds; hence 1.56 g L−1 concentration of tobacco leaf dust was recommended for pond preparation for Clarias gariepinus fingerling stocking. For better survival rates, the fish should only be introduced in the pond after three days of tobacco application.
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    16S Rrna Gene Amplicon-Based Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in the Rhizospheres of Selected Mangrove Species from Mida Creek and Gazi Bay, Kenya
    (PLOS ONE, 2021-03-23) Muwawa Edith M.; Obieze Chinedu C.; Makonde Huxley M.; Jefwa Joyce M.; Kahindi James H. P.; Khasa Damase P.
    Prokaryotic communities play key roles in biogeochemical transformation and cycling of nutrients in the productive mangrove ecosystem. In this study, the vertical distribution of rhizosphere bacteria was evaluated by profiling the bacterial diversity and community structure in the rhizospheres of four mangrove species (Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia marina) from Mida Creek and Gazi Bay, Kenya, using DNA-metabarcoding. Alpha diversity was not significantly different between sites, but, significantly higher in the rhizospheres of S. alba and R. mucronata in Gazi Bay than in Mida Creek. Chemical parameters of the mangrove sediments significantly correlated inversely with alpha diversity metrics. The bacterial community structure was significantly differentiated by geographical location, mangrove species and sampling depth, however, differences in mangrove species and sediment chemical parameters explained more the variation in bacterial community structure. Proteobacteria (mainly Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) was the dominant phylum while the families Desulfobacteraceae, Pirellulaceae and Syntrophobacteraceae were dominant in both study sites and across all mangrove species. Constrained redundancy analysis indicated that calcium, potassium, magnesium, electrical conductivity, pH, nitrogen, sodium, carbon and salinity contributed significantly to the species–environment relationship. Predicted functional profiling using PICRUSt2 revealed that pathways for sulfur and carbon metabolism were significantly enriched in Gazi Bay than Mida Creek. Overall, the results indicate that bacterial community composition and their potential function are influenced by mangrove species and a fluctuating influx of nutrients in the mangrove ecosystems of Gazi Bay and Mida Creek.
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    Variation in Seedling Density, Herbivory and Disease Incidence among Seedling Stages and Mother Prunus Africana Trees Growing on Varying Microsites in a Transitional Rainforest in Kenya
    (Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2015) Kireger, Eliud K.; Hall, John B.; Rop, Simon
    The study was carried out at Kakamega Forest which is generally considered to be the easternmost limit in today’s climate of the lowland Guineo Congolean rainforest of central Africa. Faunally and florally, Kakamega is dominated by central African lowland species, but due to its elevation (1,400-2,300 meters (4,000-7,000 ft.) and proximity to the formerly contiguous Nandi Forests it also contains well-represented highland elements and is thus unique, thus, it is a significant island of biodiversity that has developed along its own unique evolutionary course for thousands of years and which shows a high level of endemism. The objective of the study was to determine how herbivory and disease incidence vary among seedling stages and trees growing in varying micro sites. The study began at the end of the fruiting season and start of germination of seeds. A natural stand was identified where Prunus africana was abundant because the species density. The results indicated that seedling abundance, disease incidence and herbivory varied among trees and microsites
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    Classification and Socio-Economic Benefits of Agroforestry Systems in Soin Ward, Kericho County, Kenya
    (East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 2022) Korir, Kipkoech Evans; Sirmah, Peter Kipkosgei; Matonyei, Thomas Kibiwot; Simiren, James Ole Nampushi,
    Agroforestry Systems (AFS) are integrated land use systems involving trees, agricultural crops, and animals simultaneously or sequentially, with the objective of sustainably increasing their total productivity per unit area. Despite strong literature evidence describing the benefits of agroforestry to livelihoods in other parts of the world, there is little information as such in Soin Ward of Kericho County, where sugarcane competes with tea as a major cash crop. This study aimed at classifying agroforestry systems and evaluating their socio-economic benefits in Soin Ward, Kericho County, Kenya. The study adopted a qualitative research design through the administration of pretested questionnaires on types of agroforestry systems, the scale of production, land utilisation, preference of trees and sugar cane varieties and their interactions with 384 respondents in lower, upper, and midland parts of Soin Ward. Four (4) classes of agroforestry systems were identified that comprised (48.2% agrosilvopastoral, 31.6% agrosilvicultural, and 20.2% silvopastoral); (16.2% protective and 83.8% productive); (45.7% subsistence and 54.3% commercial), and integrated farm-based agroforestry 47.4%, homestead (6.8%), animal farm (31.4%), dairy farm (1.4%), and forest land (13%) respectively. The majority of the respondents (42.7%) preferred Grevillea tree species for blending with sugarcane in a treesugarcane agroforestry system in comparison with cypress (29.4%), eucalyptus (15.1%), casuarina (12.6%), and calliandra (0.2%) respectively. Sixty (61.7%) plant trees along the boundary, 24% as woodlot, hedge raw (8.9%), intercropping/mixed (3.1%), and alley cropping (2.3%). Direct benefits from the identified agroforestry systems include; income (67.6%), food (8.3%), and employment (24.1%). Indirect benefits include provision
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    Work environment and the performance of forest rangers in South West Mau Forest, Kenya
    (East African Journal of Agriculture and Biotechnology, 2019) Etemesi, Nduku Issa; Sirmah, Peter k.; Chepkwony, Josiah
    The objective of this research was to evaluate and understand how the working environment of Kenya Forest Service (KFS) forest rangers affects their performance. The rangers, under the Enforcement and Compliance Division (ENCOM) of KFS are mandated to implement the enforcement of laws and policies pertaining to forests and its allied resources as prescribed in the Kenya Forest Act of 2005. Qualitative research approach was employed in the data collection using structured questionnaires in four forest stations. From a population of 46 rangers, 32 rangers, 8 serving in each of the three forest stations (Londiani, Masaita, and Sorget) of Kericho Zone, Mau complex and the Kericho Ecosystem Conservetor’s Office were sampled randomly. A pre-tested questionnaire on demographic trends, duration of service, work environment variables constituting of remuneration, living conditions, motivation, appraisals, rewards, empowerment, communication, work tools, mobility, uniforms, challenges and personal life were administered in January 2016. The performance indicators gave dissatisfaction rates of 59% and 63% in most of the parameters tested. Comparison of the finding of this study with the findings of the surveys of 2010 and 2013 in different conservancies in Kenya gave an index of 51.4% and 56.74% satisfaction respectively. The results therefore denote a progressive correlation between the working conditions drivers and the performance of forest rangers. Kenya Forest Service under ENCOM Division has a responsibility and large task to improve the working conditions and environment of the rangers. No matter how efficient conservation and regeneration programs may be undertaken while enforcement lags the cumulative performance of the entire process shall ever record dismal performance. More radical measures must be undertaken to enhance the performance and productivity of rangers through motivation, improve both their intrinsic and extrinsic working environment. KFS must as well acknowledge that low employee satisfaction rates shall ever incapacitate the forest rangers’ performance.
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    Prevalence and Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies and Practices in Semi-Arid Regions of West-Pokot County, Kenya
    (Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 2015-06) Mandila B.; Hitimana J.; Kiplagat A.; Mengich E.; Wekesa T.
    Apart from being few, studies on agroforestry in ASALs have failed to consider different categories of farmers depending on the number of years they have practiced the technology. This has led to scanty information to the advocators of agroforestry and individual farmers in need of agroforestry information. This study therefore determined effective agroforestry technologies suitable for Kenya’s ASALs based on the prevalence and adoption levels in Chepareria and Lelan sub-locations of West-Pokot County. The study employed independent group research design. A total of 181 households were selected (90 in Chepareria and 91 in Lelan from a target population of 2199 households). Data was collected through questionnaires, key informants drawn from field officers and contact farmers, and direct field observation. Mann-Whitney U test and kruskal Wallis test were used to analyze data with the aim of determining significant differences between and among independent groups. The results indicated that most common agroforestry technologies include boundary tree planting, home-garden, woodlot, scattered trees, alley cropping, and fodder bank. The six technologies across the study area were dominated by boundary tree planting (Chepareria 63.4%, Lelan 68%). However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of agroforestry technologies between the sub-locations (U = 1685, d.f= 1, N= 181, P= 0.378). In addition, the difference in the adoption levels of the six technologies between the sub-locations was statistically insignificant (U = 3196.500, N= 181, d.f 1, P > 0.05). However, kruskal Wallis test indicated significant difference within adoption levels in sub-location [(Chepareria χ 2= 312.132, d.f =5, N = 90, P =.0000), (Lelan χ2 =145.674, d.f = 5, N = 91, P=.0000)]. At the adopters’ level, boundary planting had a significantly higher number of households as compared to any other technology. In this regard, extension officers need to organize for training to create awareness and empower farmers on least prevalent and non-adopted technologies.
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    Prevalence, Severity and Causative Agents of Dieback in Calotropis procera in Semi-Arid Regions of Kenya
    (American Research Institute for Policy Development, 2020-06) Mandila, Brexidis; Odhiambo, Kenneth; Muchugi, Alice; Nyamai, Daniel; Musyoka, Damaris
    Calotropis procera has a great potential for domestication and commercialization in Kenya for fibre production. However, the shrub experiences dieback condition caused by unidentified fungi. This makes it difficult to prevent dieback during cultivation, a situation that may lead to low productivity and financial losses. This study determined dieback prevalence, severity and causative agents among naturally growing Calotropis procera in the semi-arid regions of Kenya. A repeated measure research design was used. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting Tharaka and Makueni as study sites. Simple and systematic random sampling techniques were used in developing main and sub plots, respectively. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 16 cuttings from each block for laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, specimens were obtained from samples, sterilized, rinsed, blotted and incubated at 23°C followed by observation of spores under a Microscope. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 2*4*6 factorial ANOVA using SPSS version 25 was used in analysis. There were significant differences in dieback prevalence and severity at different time points with the highest prevalence (78.56%) and severity index (3.54) reported in (September-November) 2019. Fusarium was the dominant dieback causative fungi with dominance ranging from 32.29% to 43.38%. In conclusion, the study established that naturally growing Calotropis procera stands in semi-arid regions of Kenya experience dieback throughout the year though at varying levels.
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    Influence of Land Use Activities on Riparian Vegetation, Soil and Water Quality: An Indicator of Biodiversity Loss, South West Mau Forest, Kenya
    (Scientific research publishing, 2016-01) Naomi Njue; Eric Koech; Joseph Hitimana; Peter Sirmah
    Watershed and riparian areas of Mau Forest Complex in Kenya are experiencing increased threats due to unsustainable land use activities geared towards economic growth amidst growing population. This study was carried out to examine effects of land use activities on riparian vegetation, soil and water quality along two major rivers (Chemosit and Kipsonoi) of South West Mau Forest (SWMF). Land use activities adjacent to these rivers and biodiversity disturbance on the riparian zone were identified and underpinned to changes on Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, Potassium, Sulphur, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Total Suspended Solids and soil Organic Carbon. Three sampling sites designated(upstream, midstream and downstream) were identified and established along each river as guided by existing land use activities represented by forest, tea plantation and mixed agricultural farming respectively. At each sampling site, a 200 m × 50 m section was systematically marked on each side of the river bank; the longest side being parallel to the river flow and divided into three belts transects each 20 m × 50 m, spaced 70 m apart. Six distinct land use activities (indigenous forest, food crop, tree and tea farming, livestock keeping and urban settlement) were identified as the major land use activities in SWMF. Plant species richness decreased and overall riparian disturbance increased from upstream (intact canopy with native vegetation) to mid-stream and downstream as epitomized by the structure, biodiversity disturbance resulting from extensive and intensive farming, intrusion of exotic species to livestock grazing and urban settlement. Variation among sampling sites in Total Suspended Solids, pH, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium were associated to different land use activities along the riparian zone. Total Nitrogen and water pH showed significant sensitivity to land use changes (p < 0.05). Put together these results indicate loss of biodiversity, riparian disturbance hence a need to adopt environmental-friendly land use planning and sustainable farming systems in SWMF.
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    Effect of Fanya Juu Terraces With Varying Ditch Dimensions on Selected Soil Properties and Crop Yields in Semi-arid Eastern Kenya
    (University of Nairobi, 2023) Njiru, Emerita N
    Fanya juu terracing is a soil and water conservation practice used to control erosion and increase agricultural productivity in sloppy and hilly areas. The practice involves digging ditches and throwing the soil uphill to form embankments that obstruct runoff flow. Scanty information exists on their temporal and spatial effects on soil moisture, nutrients variability and crop yields especially on different types of soils. An on-farm study was, therefore, conducted in both the long rain (LR) and short rain (SR) seasons of 2014 and 2015 on the Luvisols in Mua location in Machakos County in semi-arid Eastern Kenya, to help generate this information. The objectives were to (i) determine the effect of Fanya juu terraces with varying ditch dimensions on soil moisture variability along the slope on hard-setting soils (ii) determine the effect of terraces on the spatial variability of selected soil nutrients along the slope and (iii) assess the effect of terraces on maize and bean grain yields on the hard setting soils of semi-arid Eastern Kenya. A split- split plot design with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of terraces with 60, 30 and 0 (Control) cm ditch depths and three cropping systems (sole maize, sole beans and maize/bean intercrop). Soil moisture content (SMC), quantities of selected nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, organic carbon) and maize and bean grain yields were monitored at the upper (US), middle (MS) and lower (LS) slope positionsof the terraces. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared across seasons at a 95% level of confidence using the least significant difference of means (LSD). Results showed that SMC and its variability in the different terraces were influenced by the distribution and amount of rainfall. Significant difference (p≤00.001) was found in the interactions of season, ditch depth and slope position. Treatments with ditches had higher SMC than the control in all seasons. Soil moisture content was higher in terraces with 30 cm ditch depth compared to those with 60 cm in low and poorly distributed rainfall seasons but lower in the high and well-distributed rainfall season. Significantly higher SMC was recorded in the LS position of the terraces compared to the US and MS positions except when seasonal rainfall was high and well distributed. Total nitrogen and available phosphorous were both significantly (p<0.001) higher in the LS than in the US positions. Maize and beans grain yields were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in terraced than non-terraced treatments and at the LS position compared to the MS and US positions. Terraces with 30 cm ditch depth produced higher grain yields than those with 60 cm in low and sparsely distributed rainfall seasons. The findings implied that the construction of Fanya juu terraces with 30 cm ditch depths was favourable for the conservation of soil moisture, nitrogen and phosphorous contents on hard-setting soils in the marginal rainfall areas of semi-arid Eastern Kenya. Farmers can therefore, save on labuor and still achieve better yields byconstructing terraces with 30 cm ditch depth. The results also implied that spatial variations in contents of N and P caused by Fanya juu terraces can be utilized more efficiently through increased intensification of the lower slope position to improve crop production. The study recommends the constructionof Fanya juu terraces with a ditch depth of 30 cm and intensification of the lower slope position for increased utilization of the available nutrients and moisture in low and poorly distributed rainfall environments. It further recommends more studies on different soil types, development of technologies that favour efficient utilization of resources without causing degradation at the lower slope, and practices that will increase productivity at the upper position of the slope for improved food security.
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    Effects of Concentrate Supplementation on Lactating Dromedary Camels During Mating Season in Isiolo, Kenya
    (African journal of science technology and social science, 2024-04) Thiakunu Florence; Njehia Bernard K.; Nguhiu Purity N.; Arimi Joshua M.
    Camels are resilient and have a high potential to contribute to food security and economic development in arid areas. However, this potential is being limited by diminishing feed resources due to the effects of climate change. Further, there is an upcoming peri-urban camel production system where the animals are limited in their movement. Consequently, camels do not get enough browse forages in terms of biomass and quality to meet their nutritional requirement. This has resulted in decreased production and reproductive performance. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of concentrate supplementation on lactating camels on productive and reproductive performance during mating season. A diet containing 16.80% crude protein (CP) and a digestible energy of 8.44 MJ/Kg was formulated and supplemented in the evenings with a group of ten camels. Another group of 10 camels acted as the control. Milking was done in the morning and production from each camel was recorded in liters. Percentage milk fat and protein analysis were done weekly using Gerber and Kjeldahl methods respectively. Serum biochemical levels were determined using spectrophotometry in the fourth week. Confirmation of pregnancy was done on the 5th month after mating by chemiluminescent progesterone assay. Camels were then divided into four groups. These were, supplemented pregnant(4) supplemented and not pregnant(6) un-supplemented pregnant(1), and un- supplemented and not pregnant(9). Paired mean comparisons were done to ascertain differences within the four groups. Mean daily milk production was 25.26±0.42 and 22.79±0.41 liters for supplemented and un-supplemented groups respectively (p<0.001). Paired mean differences were highest between pregnant supplemented and pregnant un-supplemented pair (p=0.165). Biochemical profiles, mean milk protein and fat percentages were significantly higher for supplemented than un-supplemented (p˂0.05). All supplemented camels were mated within the first two weeks and had a higher conception rate (40%) than un-supplemented (10%). The study recommends concentrate supplementation during mating season to improve fertility and milk production, especially in pregnant
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    Participatory Selection Of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lam.) Cultivars Using Mother And Baby Trial In Western Kenya
    (ResearchGate, 2011-10) Odhiambo G.O; Kwach J.K.; Gichuki Simon T.; Dida Mathews
    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is a drought tolerant food security crop. Western Kenya accounts for 60% of the national production. Intensive production is constrained by lack of improved high yielding cultivars tolerant to pests and diseases. Currently, average farmer root yields range between 5.6-13.0 t ha-1. The objective of this study is to evaluate with the farmers eleven sweet potato cultivars improved for high yielding and high nutrition value; 'Kemb10', 'SPK004', 'Mugande', 'Namaswakhe', 'K117', 'Polista', 'Bungoma', 'Odinga', '292-H-12', 'Zapallo' and 'Improved Nyathi Odiewo'. These were tested against four local popular farmer cultivars; 'Uimprove Nyathi Odiewo', 'Jayalo', 'Amina' and 'Kuny kibuonjo'. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 15 treatments replicated four times per each of four locations in mother and baby trials. Assessments were done on biomass and root tuber yields. Results showed that there were significant differences in yield performance between the cultivars with 'Mugande' yielding the highest across locations. Conversely, the farmers cultivars; 'Nyathi Odiewo' and 'Kuny kibounjo' were comparable to the improved cultivars; 'Mugande', 'K117', 'Improved Nyathi Odiewo', 'Namaswakhe', 'Kemb10', and 'Odinga'. All the cultivars had dry matter content above 30% except 'Zapallo' that had 21.6%. The improved sweet potato cultivars have the potential to increase farmers' food security since they yielded 14-28 t ha-1. Involvement of farmers has been decisive in the selection of preferred sweet potato cultivars for commercial and domestic use. These cultivars could be further developed through a multiplication and marketing program to incorporate the preferred qualities for
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    Factors Influencing Development of Farm Forestry in Lugari District, Kakamega County, Western Kenya
    (Agricultural and Food Sciences, Environmental Science IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 0002) Otsieno Fredrick Sikuku; Apudo Musa Gweya; Ototo Gilbert O.
    This study was conducted to establish the factors influencing the development of farm forestry in Lugari Division, Western Kenya. Data was collected between December 2007 to January 2008. Structured questionnaires/schedules, key informant interviewing, and secondary sources of data were used to collect data. All collected data were entered in SPSS 13.5 to facilitate statistical analysis using descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions and cross tabulations. Significant differences between expected and observed attributes were analyzed by non-parametric Chi- square tests. Farm sizes, species preferences, end use of tree products, access to and availability of preferred germplasm and planting materials, availability of resources for raising seedlings, access to extension services, and marketing constraints as well as biological and technical factors such as diseases, pests and planting methodologies were established as important factors influencing farm forestry and tree planting in general, in the division. This study has also demonstrated that farm forestry can be a useful tool for enhancing the livelihoods of many people and contributing to rural development in Lugari, and can be readily adopted if identified challenges can be comprehensively addressed. It is recommended that tree propagation techniques and distribution networks should be developed to enable affordable access to a wide range of appropriate germplasm. Small scale farmers should be assisted, through extension services, to manage and enhance the value of their tree crops. Institutional support through incentives such as credits, subsidies, technical support and creation of market opportunities including forest policy and legislation sensitization and implementation would boost farm forestry Collapse
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    Productivity gaps among groundnut farmers in Kenya and Uganda: A stochastic production frontier analysis
    (African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2016) Asekenye Cresenia; Bravo-Ureta Boris E; Deom Mike; Kidula Nelson; Okello David Kalule; Okoko Nasambu; Puppala Naveen
    Productivity gaps for 321 groundnut farmers from Uganda and Kenya were analysed using data from the 2009 growing seasons. Farmers who planted improved varieties enjoyed output advantages of 143% in Uganda and 58.6% in Kenya over those who planted only local varieties. Farmers had a mean technical efficiency of 54.6% in Uganda and 54.4% in Kenya. No significant differences were found in the mean technical efficiencies of research and non-research farmers, and between maleand female-managed plots. Productivity therefore could be enhanced if high-efficiency households invest more in improved varieties and if low-efficiency households make better use of their existing technology. Continued development of improved varieties will further shift the production frontier outward. The apparent spill-over effect of the technical support received by research and nonresearch farmers suggests that farmer education has a multiplier effect. An improvement in extension service delivery could help to enhance the managerial skills of both farmer categories.
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    Inhibition of Ralstonia Solanacearum by Warburgia Ugandensis Stem Bark And Leaf Crude Extracts Obtained Using Organic Solvents
    (FOUNDATION OF INNOVATIONS @MERUUNIVERSITY, 2023) Lideke Oliver Libese; Mworia Eric G.; Mugo Cynthia
    ABSTRACT Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterial pathogen that poses significant threat to the Solanaceae family and other crops. It causes widespread bacterial wilt, a devastating disease that affects the plant's water transport system, leading to wilting and death. Numerous chemical agents and treatment methods have been employed in attempts to control R. solanacearum, but are ineffective.  The study aimed to determine the in vitro efficacy of W. ugandensis stem bark and leaf crude extracts against R. solanacearum. W. ugandensis stem bark and leaf crude extracts were obtained using organic solvents viz. methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane. In vitro, antagonistic activities against R. solanacearum of all organic crude extracts of W. ugandensis were determined by standard agar well diffusion assay on Kelman’s 2, 3, 5- triphenyl tetrazolium chloride medium in triplicates. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in the statistical analysis of the mean diameter inhibition zones. All the organic solvents crude extracts of W. ugandensis were inhibitive against R. solanacearum. However, the stem bark crude extracts exhibited significantly higher efficacy against R. solanacearum compared to the leaf crude extracts.  The crude extracts were subjected to a serial dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). W. ugandensis stem bark dichloromethane crude extracts had the lowest MIC of 1 mg/ml. W. ugandensis stem bark dichloromethane crude extracts were most effective against R. solanacearum. Further research is important to determine the bioactive compounds against R. solanacearum in W. ugandensis stem bark dichloromethane crude extracts.
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    Local perceptions, Opportunities, and Challenges of Community-based Ecotourism in Gazi Bay, Kenya
    (WIO Journal of Marine Science, 2023-02-27) Robert M. Runya; Nicholas J. Karani; Agnes Muriuki; Donald M. Maringa; Anne W. Kamau; Nelly Ndomasi; Ken Njagi; Cosmas Munga; Judith A. Okello
    Abstract Community Based Ecotourism (CBET) has the potential to both improve the conservation status of mangrove ecosystems and stimulate local economies. However, these ecotourism initiatives often fail due to a lack of active local participation, poor management and a lack of an appropriate benefit sharing scheme. This paper explores perceptions, opportunities and challenges of community mangrove-based ecotourism in Gazi Bay, Kenya. Data collected from household surveys, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to examine local perceptions, challenges and opportunities with respect to their participation in ecotourism as a tool for mangrove conservation. The results obtained indicated that 81.4 % of the Gazi village community was aware of the ecotourism activities being undertaken in the area with 62.8 % acknowledging the socio-economic as well as the environmental impacts of the ecotourism activities. Also, 66.0 % of the local community identified cultural traditions and local skills possessed by the community as having the potential to promote sustainable ecotourism activities in the area. For the design and implementation of any ecotourism venture and the management of mangroves to be sustainable, including that undertaken by the Gazi community, this study recommends prioritising effective local participation and capacity building. In addition, private sector involvement is essential for the mobilisation of resources to further enhance the management and conservation of mangroves in the long-term. The results provide key insights needed not only to improve the design and management of community-led marine conservation initiatives but also for ensuring that optimal conservation benefits are achieved.
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    Evaluation of Cercaricidal and Miracicidal Activity of Selected Plant Extracts Against Larval Stages of Schistosoma Mansoni
    (IISTE, 2016) Obare, Benter A.; Yole, Dorcas; Nonoh, James; Lwande, Wilber
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood-flukes of the genus Schistosoma. It is one of the most widespread of all human parasitic diseases, ranking second only to malaria in terms of its socioeconomic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas.More than 207 million people, 85% of whom live in Africa, are infected with schistosomiasis,and an estimated700 million people are at risk of infection in 76 countries.Control of schistosomiasis faces serious drawbacks of emergence of drug resistant parasites and molluscicide resistant snail hosts.Due to improper waste disposal,infected faecal matter enter water bodies such as canals rivers and springs where miracidia that hatch from parasite eggs develop into cercariae inside snail intermediate hosts and are infective to humans upon release in to the water.This study sought to evaluate the miracicidal and cercaricidal activity of selected plant extracts on larval stages of Schistosoma mansoni.Ten cercariae and miracidia were exposed to extract concentrations ranging from 10-150ppm.The most active extracts were Phytolacca dodecandra (LT50 10.84 and16.91minutes) and Solanum linaeanum (LT50 of 22.86 and 26.96 minutes) respectively that killed 50% of miracidia and cercariae in less than 30minutes.This was followed closely by Solanum americanum (LT50 31.02 and 31.89) and Anonna squamosa LT50 35.29 and 40.46minutes respectively.Piper nigrum was the least active recording LT50 46.84 and 56.75 of miracidia and cercaria respectively.Miracidia were more susceptible to extracts than cercariae.The higher susceptibility of miracidia to extracts has also been reported in other studies and it is advantageous since killing one miracidium prevents the formation of thousands of cercariae which are infective to humans.All the extracts killed larvae within one hour at concentration less than 100ppm and could be categorized as potent cercaricide and miracicides.
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    An assessment of morphological and physiological traits that correlate with faster growth rate and high biomass production in Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne seedlings
    (Advances in Life Science and Technology, 2015) Kireger, Eliud K.; Rop, Simon K.
    Presently, there are no procedures for selecting superior genotypes at seedling stage. We do not know which morphological or physiological characteristics can be used to predict superior growth in trees. Field testing of genotypes requires a substantial amount of time and money before a genotype shows significant promise in the field. For this reason, morphological and physiological parameters that correlate with growth rate were sought as early indicators of field performance. Six seed provenances of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne collected from areas of varying aridity where compared in biomass productivity and gas exchange traits. After 3.5 months of growth, biomass ranged from 1-2 g. Significant provenance variation was observed in total biomass productivity, root dry weight, leaf area, net photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area, stomatal conductance (P<0.001) and leaf transpiration rate (P<0.05). More xeric provenances exhibited lower biomass productivity compared to mesic ones. They also showed lower photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance’s and low photosynthetic capacity. Larger leaf areas, high stomatal conductances and photosynthetic rates appeared to be positively correlated with total biomass productivity since faster growing provenances had a greater leaf area, higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates. Taken together, the results suggest that differences in leaf area, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates (photosynthetic capacity) among provenances may be responsible for the variation in biomass productivity in Acacia tortilis provenances. The probable premise and sequence of physiological events responsible for the variability depends on photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf longevity.