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    The Pasting Behaviour of Lactic-Fermented and Dried Uji (An East African Sour Porridge)
    (Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, 2022) Onyango Calvin; Okoth Michael; Mbugua Samuel
    The effects of sun-, cabinet-, and drum-drying on the behaviour of submerged culture lactic¬fermented pure cassava, maize and finger millet and composites of maize-finger millet and cassava-finger millet were investigated in a Brabender amylograph. The cereal flours and maize-finger millet composite had higher onset and peak gelatinization temperatures but lower peak viscosities than cassava or cassava finger millet composites. Fermentation alone or in combination with drying increased the viscosity of the flours, except for the fermented and drum-dried cassava-finger millet composite flour. This increased viscosity of uji on fermentation and drying makes it more difficult to cook.Fermented and drum-dried flours recorded high initial viscosities, at 30 "C, when the amylograph was switched on.
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    Parasites Modify Sub-Cellular Partitioning of Metals in the Gut of Fish
    (Pubmed, 2011) Okoth Oyoo Elijah; Admiraal Wim; Odipo Osano; Kraak Michael; Gichuki John; Ogwai Caleb
    Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the subcellular fractions of the gut in presence of an endoparasite (Ligula intestinalis). The fish were sampled along four sites in Lake Victoria, Kenya differing in metal contamination. Accumulation of Cd, Cr and Zn was higher in the whole body and in the gut of parasitized fish compared to non-parasitized fish, while Cu was depleted in parasitized fish. Generally, for both non-parasitized and parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn partitioned in the cytosolic fractions and Cu in the particulate fraction. Metal concentrations in organelles within the particulate fractions of the non-parasitized fish were statistically similar except for Cd in the lysosome, while in the parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn were accumulated more by the lysosome and microsomes. In the cytosolic fractions, the non-parasitized fish accumulated Cd, Cr and Zn in the heat stable proteins (HSP), while in the parasitized fish the metals were accumulated in the heat denatured proteins (HDP). On the contrary, Cu accumulated in the HSP in parasitized fish. The present study revealed specific binding of metals to potentially sensitive sub-cellular fractions in fish in the presence of parasites, suggesting interference with metal detoxification, and potentially affecting the health status of fish hosts in Lake Victoria.
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    Proximate Composition and Digestibility of Fermented and Extruded Uji From Maize– Finger Millet Blend
    (LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2004) Onyango Calvin; Noetzold Horst; Bley Thomas; Henle Thomas
    The proximate composition, amino acid profile and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities of raw; fermented; fermented and cooked; unfermented and extruded; and fermented and extruded maize–finger millet blend was studied. Aspartic acid, glycine,cystine, methionine, tyrosine and lysine increased after fermentation, while contents of all other amino acids showed no significant changes. Greater losses of amino acids occurred when the fermented blend was extruded than when cooked. Fermentation improved protein and starch digestibilities, whereas cooking or extruding the fermented blend reduced the digestibilities. Extruding the unfermented blend increased protein and starch digestibilities and reduced nitrogen solubility index by 50%. Raw flour had 0.41 g/100 g water-soluble starch which declined to 0.05 g/100 g on fermentation but increased to 20–34 g/100 g after extrusion
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    Effect of Extrusion Variables on Fermented Maize–Finger Millet Blend in the Production Of Uji
    (ScienceDirect, 2004) Onyango Calvin; Henle Thomas; Ziems Anette; Thea Hofmann; Thomas Bley
    The effects of screw speed, feed moisture, glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose on extrusion of lactic fermented and dried maize–finger millet blend was investigated. Fermentation caused a reduction in sectional expansion index, flour bulk density and water absorption index (WAI) but increased specific volume, water solubility index and darkened the extrudates. Increase in feed moisture (13–25%) reduced sectional expansion index, specific volume and yellowness but increased extrudate moisture content, bulk density and darkness of the extrudates. Increasing screw speed (158–242 rpm) had a negative correlation only with specific volume and lightness (P<0.05). An increase in the content of any of the sugars reduced extrudate moisture content, sectional expansion index, WAI and specific volume but increased bulk density and water solubility index. Extrudates treated with monosaccharides were darker than extrudates treated with disaccharides.
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    Digestibility and Antinutrient Properties of Acidified and Extruded Maize–Finger Millet Blend in the Production of Uji
    (ScienceDirect, 2004) Onyango Calvin; Noetzold Horst; Ziems Annette; Hofmann Thea; Bley Thomas; Henle Thomas
    Lactic and citric acids were used as alternatives to backslop fermentation in the manufacture of extruded uji (a thin porridge from eastern Africa). Acidity of the blends was reduced by fermentation or progressively lowered with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mol/l lactic or citric acids before extrusion. The absence of ethanol soluble starch in the extrudates indicated that extrusion solubilizes starch without formation of maltodextrins. In vitro starch digestibility increased from 20 mg maltose/g starch in the raw blend to about 200 mg/g after extrusion. Extrusion reduced total dietary fibre by 39–68%, redistributed soluble to insoluble fibre ratios and had a negligible effect on the formation of resistant starch (less than 1 g/100 g). In vitro protein digestibility increased after fermentation or acid treatment followed by extrusion. Nitrogen solubility index decreased by 40–50% when the unfermented, lactic or citric acid treated blends were extruded, but increased by 20% when the blend was fermented before extrusion. Amino acid analysis showed that histidine, lysine and arginine contents were lowest in the fermented-extruded blends. Tannin content decreased from 1677 mg/100 g in the raw blend to between 551 and 1093 mg/100 g in the extrudates whereas phytate content remained unaffected by extrusion (248–286 )
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    Production of High Energy Density Fermented Uji using a Commercial Alpha-Amylase orby Single-Screw Extrusion
    (ScienceDirect, 2003) Onyango Calvin; Henle Thomas; Hofmann Thea; Bley Thomas
    The effects of alpha-amylase and extrusion on the viscosity and energy density of uji, a spontaneously fermented thin porridge from different combinations of maize, finger millet, sorghum and cassava, were investigated. Fermentation alone was not able to reduce the viscosity of uji, but addition of 0.1–2.1 ml/100 ml alpha-amylase to the fermented slurry or extrusion of the fermented and dried flour at 150–180°C and a screw speed of 200 rpm reduced the viscosity of 20 g/100 ml uji from 6000–7000 to 1000–2000 cP, measured at 40°C and a shear rate of 50 s−1. The amount of flour required to make uji could thus be increased by a factor of 2.0–2.5 and consequently it was possible to produce uji with acceptable energy densities (0.6–0.8 kcal/g) for child feeding.
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    Influence of Incubation Temperature and Time on Resistant Starch Type III Formation From Autoclaved and Acid-Hydrolysed Cassava Starch
    (SciencDirect, 2006-11-24) Onyango Calvin; Bley Thomas; Annette Jacob; Henle Thomas; Rohm Harald
    Raw cassava starch, having 74.94 and 0.44 g/100 g resistant starch type II and III (RS II and RS III), respectively, was autoclaved at 121 °C in water, 1, 10 or 100 mmol/L lactic acid. The formation of RS III was evaluated in relation to variable incubation temperature (−20 to 100 °C), incubation time (6–48 h) and autoclaving time (15–90 min). Negligible to low quantities of RS III (0.59–2.42 g/100 g) were formed from autoclaved starch suspended in 100 mmol/L lactic acid, whereas intermediate to high quantities (2.68–9.97 g/100 g) were formed from autoclaved starch suspended in water, 1 or 10 mmol/L lactic acid, except for treatments with water or 10 mmol/L lactic acid incubated at 100 °C for 6 h (1.74 g/100 g). Autoclaving times corresponding to maximum RS III contents were 15 and 45 min for water and 10 mmol/L lactic acid, respectively. Whereas, the RS III fractions from cassava starch suspended in water had melt transitions between 158 and 175 °C with low endothermic enthalpies (0.2–1.6 J/g), the thermal transitions of the acidtreated samples were indistinct.
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    Helminthiasis and Malaria Co-Infection Among Women of Reproductive Age in a Rural Setting of Kilifi County, Coastal Kenya: A Mixed Method Study
    (PLOS GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH, 2024-06-03) Masaku, Janet; Mutuku, Francis; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Okoyo, Collins; Kanyi, Henry; Kamau, Joyce; Kaduka, Lydia; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Jeza, Victor T.
    Soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH), Schistosoma haematobium and malaria co-infection lead to increased susceptibility to other infections and poor pregnancy outcomes among women of reproductive age (WRA). This study sought to establish risk factors, burden of co-infection with STH, S. haematobium and Plasmodium sp. among WRA in Kilifi County, Kenya.A mixed method cross-sectional study was conducted on 474 WRA in 2021. Simple random sampling was used to select WRA from four villages in two purposively sampled sub-counties. Study participants were interviewed, and stool samples collected and analysed using Kato-Katz technique for STH. Urine samples were collected for examination of S. haematobium while malaria microscopic test was done using finger prick blood samples. Further, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with purposively selected WRA and qualitative data analyzed thematically using Nvivo software. Quantitative and qualitative methods were triangulated to comprehensively strengthen the study findings. Prevalence of S. haematobium was 22.3% (95%CI: 13.5–36.9), any STH 5.2% (95%CI: 1.9–14.3) and malaria 8.3% (95%: 3.8–18.2). Co-infections between any STH and S. haematobium was 0.8% (95%CI: 0.2–3.2) and between S. haematobium and malaria 0.8% (95%CI: 0.2–3.1). Multivariable analysis showed increased odds of any STH infections among participants in Rabai Sub-County, (aOR = 9.74; p = 0.026), businesswomen (aOR = 5.25; p<0.001), housewives (aOR = 2.78; p = 0.003), and casual laborers (aOR = 27.03; p<0.001). Qualitative analysis showed that the three parasitic diseases were common and responsible for possible causes of low birth weight, susceptibility to other infections and complications such as infertility and cancer later in life.The study demonstrated that STH, S. haematobium and malaria are still a public health problem to WRA. Some of the associated risks of infection were geographical location, socio-economic and WASH factors. Hence the need to implement integrated control efforts of the three parasitic infection.
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    Schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis, and malaria co-infections among women of reproductive age in rural communities of Kwale County, coastal Kenya
    (BMC Public Health, 2022-01-19) Jeza, Victor Tunje; Mutuku, Francis; Kaduka, Lydia; Mwandawiro, Charles; Masaku, Janet; Okoyo, Collins; Kanyi, Henry; Kamau, Joyce; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Kihara, Jimmy Hussein
    Background: Schistosoma haematobium, soil transmitted helminthes (STH), and malaria lead to a double burden in pregnancy that eventually leads to poor immunity, increased susceptibility to other infections, and poor pregnancy outcomes. Many studies have been carried out on preschool and school aged children but very little has been done among the at risk adult population including women of reproductive age (WRA). Our current study sought to establish the risk factors and burden of co-infection with S. haematobium, STH, and Plasmodium sp. among WRA in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya. Methods: A total of 534 WRA between the ages of 15–50 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from four villages; Bilashaka and Mwaluphamba in Matuga sub-County, and Mwachinga and Dumbule in Kinango sub-County. Socio-demographic information was collected using a pretested standardized questionnaire. Parasitological examination was done using urine filtration method for Schistosoma haematobium, Kato Katz for STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Trichuris trichiura), and standard slide microscopy for Plasmodium sp. Statistical analyses were carried out using STATA version 15.1. Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium was 3.8% (95% CI: 2.6–5.4) while that for malaria was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0–11.7). The prevalence of STH was 5.6% (95% CI: 2.8–11.3) with overall prevalence of 5.3% (95% CI: 2.5–10.9) for hookworm and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–1.9) for T. trichiura. The occurrence of co-infection was low and was recorded between S. haematobium and P. falciparum (0.6%), followed by S. haematobium and STH (0.4%).Among pregnant women, 2.6% had co-infection with S. haematobium and P. falciparum. Only 1.3% had co-infection with S. haematobium and hookworm or T. trichiura. Among non-pregnant women, co-infection with S. haematobium and P. falciparum was 0.2%. Similarly, co-infection with S. haematobium and hookworm or T. trichiura was 0.2%.Bed net ownership and usage among pregnant women was 87.8 and 96.6%, respectively. 66.3% of the women reported using improved water sources for drinking while 78.1% reported using improved sanitation facilities. Conclusion: The use of improved WASH activities might have contributed to the low prevalence of STHs and S. haematobium infections. Further, bed net ownership and usage might have resulted in the low prevalence of Plasmodium sp. infections observed.
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    Potent Neutralization of Rift Valley Fever Virus by Human Monoclonal Antibodies Through Fusion Inhibition
    (2021-03-29) Chapman S. Nathaniel; Haiyan Zhao; Kose Nurgun; Westover B. Jonna; Kalyram Bire; Bombardi Robin; Rodriguez Jessica; Sutton Rachel; Genualdi Joseph; LeBaud Desiree A.; Mutuku M. Francis; Pittman R. Phillip; Freiberg N. Alexander; Gowen B. Brian; Fremont H. Daved; Crowe Jnr E. James
    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an emerging arboviral and zoonotic bunyavirus, causes severe disease in livestock and humans. Here, we report the isolation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the B cells of immune individuals following natural infection in Kenya or immunization with MP-12 vaccine. The B cell responses of individuals who were vaccinated or naturally infected recognized similar epitopes on both Gc and Gn proteins. The Gn-specific mAbs and two mAbs that do not recognize either monomeric Gc or Gn alone but recognized the hetero-oligomer glycoprotein complex (Gc+Gn) when Gc and Gn were coexpressed exhibited potent neutralizing activities in vitro, while Gc-specific mAbs exhibited relatively lower neutralizing capacity. The two Gc+Gn–specific mAbs and the Gn domain A-specific mAbs inhibited RVFV fusion to cells, suggesting that mAbs can inhibit the exposure of the fusion loop in Gc, a class II fusion protein, and thus prevent fusion by an indirect mechanism without direct fusion loop contact. Competition-binding analysis with coexpressed Gc/Gn and mutagenesis library screening indicated that these mAbs recognize four major antigenic sites, with two sites of vulnerability for neutralization on Gn. In experimental models of infection in mice, representative mAbs recognizing three of the antigenic sites reduced morbidity and mortality when used at a low dose in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. This study identifies multiple candidate mAbs that may be suitable for use in humans against RVFV infection and highlights fusion inhibition against bunyaviruses as a potential contributor to potent antibodymediated neutralization.
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    Examining Which Clinicians Provide Admission Hospital Care in a High Mortality Setting and Their Adherence to Guidelines: An Observational Study in 13 Hospitals
    (BMJ, 2020-03-12) Ogero, Morris; Akech, Samuel; Malla, Lucas; Agweyu, Ambrose; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike
    Background: We explored who actually provides most admission care in hospitals offering supervised experiential training to graduating clinicians in a high mortality setting where practices deviate from guideline recommendations. Methods: We used a large observational data set from 13 Kenyan county hospitals from November 2015 through November 2018 where patients were linked to admitting clinicians. We explored guideline adherence after creating a cumulative correctness of Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (cPAQC) score on a 5-point scale (0–4) in which points represent correct, sequential progress in providing care perfectly adherent to guidelines comprising admission assessment, diagnosis and treatment. At the point where guideline adherence declined the most we dichotomised the cPAQC score and used multilevel logistic regression models to explore whether clinician and patient-level factors influence adherence. Results There were 1489 clinicians who could be linked to 53 003 patients over a period of 3 years. Patients were rarely admitted by fully qualified clinicians and predominantly by preregistration medical officer interns (MOI, 46%) and diploma level clinical officer interns (COI, 41%) with a median of 28 MOI (range 11–68) and 52 COI (range 5–160) offering care per study hospital. The cPAQC scores suggest that perfect guideline adherence is found in ≤12% of children with malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea with dehydration. MOIs were more adherent to guidelines than COI (adjusted OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.34)) but multimorbidity was significantly associated with lower guideline adherence. Conclusion Over 85% of admissions to hospitals in high mortality settings that offer experiential training in Kenya are conducted by preregistration clinicians. Clinical assessment is good but classifying severity of illness in accordance with guideline recommendations is a challenge. Adherence by MOI with 6 years’ training is better than COI with 3 years’ training, performance does not seem to improve during their 3 months of paediatric rotations.
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    Solid Wastes Provide Breeding Sites, Burrows, and Food for Biological Disease Vectors, and Urban Zoonotic Reservoirs: A Call to Action for Solutions-Based Research
    (Frontiers in Public Health, 2020-01-17) Krystosik, Amy; Njoroge, Gathenji; Odhiambo, Lorriane; Forsyth, Jenna E.; Mutuku, Francis; LaBeaud, A. Desiree
    Background: Infectious disease epidemiology and planetary health literature often cite solid waste and plastic pollution as risk factors for vector-borne diseases and urban zoonoses; however, no rigorous reviews of the risks to human health have been published since 1994. This paper aims to identify research gaps and outline potential solutions to interrupt the vicious cycle of solid wastes; disease vectors and reservoirs; infection and disease; and poverty. Methods: We searched peer-reviewed publications from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Stanford Searchworks, and references from relevant articles using the search terms (“disease” OR “epidemiology”) AND (“plastic pollution,” “garbage,” and “trash,” “rubbish,” “refuse,” OR “solid waste”). Abstracts and reports from meetings were included only when they related directly to previously published work. Only articles published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese through 2018 were included, with a focus on post-1994, after the last comprehensive review was published. Cancer, diabetes, and food chain-specific articles were outside the scope and excluded. After completing the literature review, we further limited the literature to “urban zoonotic and biological vector-borne diseases” or to “zoonotic and biological vector-borne diseases of the urban environment.” Results: Urban biological vector-borne diseases, especially Aedes-borne diseases, are associated with solid waste accumulation but vector preferences vary over season and region. Urban zoonosis, especially rodent and canine disease reservoirs, are associated with solid waste in urban settings, especially when garbage accumulates over time, creating burrowing sites and food for reservoirs. Although evidence suggests the link between plastic pollution/solid waste and human disease, measurements are not standardized, confounders are not rigorously controlled, and the quality of evidence varies. Here we propose a framework for solutions-based research in three areas: innovation, education, and policy. Conclusions: Disease epidemics are increasing in scope and scale with urban populations growing, climate change providing newly suitable vector climates, and immunologically naïve populations becoming newly exposed. Sustainable solid waste management is crucial to prevention, specifically in urban environments that favor urban vectors such as Aedes species. We propose that next steps should include more robust epidemiological measurements and propose a framework for solutions-based research.
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    Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes among Children with Diarrhea Prior to Vaccine Introduction in Western Kenya
    (Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, 2019-02-16) Ochieng, John B; Khagayi, Sammy; Ogwel, Billy; Onkoba, Reuben; Apondi, Evans; Juma, Jane; Seheri, Mapaseka; Peenze, Ina; Onyango, Clayton; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Tabu, Collins; Kibet, Sergon; Omore, Richard; Odhiambo, Frank; Mphahlele, Jeffrey; Verani, Jennifer R; Fields, Barry; Bigogo, Godfrey; Laserson, Kayla F; Tate, Jacqueline E; Mwenda, Jason M; Breiman, Robert F
    Background: Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea hospitalization among children worldwide. Most fatal rotavirus-associated diarrhea cases among children under 5 years occur in Africa and Asia. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains among children less than 5 years in western Kenya to provide baseline data on the prevalence of each genotype prior to the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Kenya. Methods: From January 2010 to December 2013, stool samples were collected from 1677 children with acute gastroenteritis. All specimens were transported to Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research, Enterics Laboratory and tested for rotavirus antigens using enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus dsRNA was extracted from 234 simple randomly selected EIA positive stool samples using QIAamp viral RNA mini kit and tested by semi-nested RT-PCR for G and P genotypes using type-specific primers. The PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Chi-square test was used to test the association between rotavirus genotypes and age. Results: Of the 1677 stool samples tested, 401 (23.9%) were positive for group A rotavirus antigen. Of the 234 rotavirus dsRNA extractions analyzed by PCR, 219 (93.6%) and 193 (82.5%) typed positive for at least one of the VP7 genotypes (G type) and VP4 genotypes (P types), respectively. Of the typeable, 19 were mixed G types and P types. However, 15 VP7 and 41 VP4 were nontypeable. The predominant genotypes detected included G1 (30%), G9 (27%), G8 (10%) and G3 (9%) for the G types, and P[8] (33%) and P[6] (30%) for the P types. The predominant combinations were: G1P[8] (15%), G9P[8] (12%) and G3P[6] (8%) which combined accounted for 35% of the genotypes detected. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the genotype diversity and dominance of G1, G3, G8 and G9 in combination with P[6] and P[8] as the most common genotypes associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in this population. Continuous surveillance is necessary to monitor the effectiveness of the vaccine and shifts among the circulating genotypes in this region.
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    Prevalence and Fluid Management of Dehydration in Children without Diarrhoea Admitted to Kenyan Hospitals: A Multisite Observational Study
    (BMJ Open, 2021-03-17) Omoke, Sylvia; English, Mike; Aluvaala, Jalemba; Gathara, David; Agweyu, Ambrose; Akech, Samuel
    Objectives To examine the prevalence of dehydration without diarrhoea among admitted children aged 1–59 months and to describe fluid management practices in such cases. Design A multisite observational study that used routine in-patient data collected prospectively between October 2013 and December 2018. Settings Study conducted in 13 county referral hospitals in Kenya. Participants Children aged 1–59 months with admission or discharge diagnosis of dehydration but had no diarrhoea as a symptom or diagnosis. Children aged <28 days and those with severe acute malnutrition were excluded. Results The prevalence of dehydration in children without diarrhoea was 3.0% (2019/68 204) and comprised 15.9% (2019/12 702) of all dehydration cases. Only 55.8% (1127/2019) of affected children received either oral or intravenous fluid therapy. Where fluid treatment was given, the volumes, type of fluid, duration of fluid therapy and route of administration were similar to those used in the treatment of dehydration secondary to diarrhoea. Pneumonia (1021/2019, 50.6%) and malaria (715/2019, 35.4%) were the two most common comorbid diagnoses. Overall case fatality in the study population was 12.9% (260/2019). Conclusion Sixteen per cent of children hospitalised with dehydration do not have diarrhoea but other common illnesses. Two-fifths do not receive fluid therapy; a regimen similar to that used in diarrhoeal cases is used in cases where fluid is administered. Efforts to promote compliance with guidance in routine clinical settings should recognise special circumstances where guidelines do not apply, and further studies on appropriate management for dehydration in the absence of diarrhoea are required.
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    Antimalarial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts and Selection of Resistance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA in a Mouse Model
    (Journal of Pathogens, 2021-02-03) Yusuf Rahma Udu; Oyweri Job; Gathirwa Jeremiah
    Chemotherapy plays a crucial role in malaria control. However, the main obstacle to treatment has been the rise of parasite resistance to most antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin- based combination therapies (ACTs) remain the most effective antimalarial medicines available today. However, malaria parasite tolerance to ACTs is now increasingly prevalent especially in Southeast Asia presenting the danger of the spread of ACTs resistance to other parts of the world. Consequently, this creates the need for alternative effective antimalarials. (erefore, this study sought out to determine antimalarial potential, safety, and resistance development of the extracts in a mouse model. Method. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained by solvent extraction. (e extracts were assayed for acute toxicity in vivo. Additionally, the two extracts were evaluated for antimalarial activity in vivo against Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain by the 4-day suppressive test at 500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day. Packed cell volume was evaluated to determine anemia manifestation. Finally, continuous drug pressure experiment at 500 mg/kg and DNA amplification via PCR were conducted. (e amplicons underwent through Sanger sequencing. Results. (ere was no toxicity realized in the animals at 2000 mg/kg. Importantly, high parasitemia suppression of 75.52% and 75.30% using a dose of 500 mg/kg of methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively, was noted. (e extracts were able to reverse packed cell volume reduction. Nigella sativa-resistant phenotype was selected as delayed parasite clearance. However, there was no change in the nucleotide sequences of PbMDR1 and PbCRT genes. Conclusion. (e results provide room for future exploitation of the plant as an antimalarial
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    Comparative Analysis of Communication Channels for Diffusion and Adoption of Quality Protein Maize: The Case of Kathonzweni and Kirinyaga, Kenya
    (University of Nairobi, 2015) Wafula, Carolyne K
    Despite the use of various communication strategies in Kenya, access and use of agricultural information by rural farming communities and other actors along the agricultural information chain is inadequate to cope with challenges in crop production leading to high levels of poverty. In Kirinyaga and Makueni counties, poverty levels of people living in urban areas are 26 % and 35% respectively, with about 67% of the rural populations living below the poverty line. This study, therefore, investigated how different communication channels used in disseminating new or proven agricultural technologies in Africa by the DONATA project among the smallholder farmers in Kirinyaga in Central and Kathonzweni in Eastern counties of Kenya have influenced the farmers decision to adopt quality protein maize (QPM). Random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the survey and primary data collected using structured questionnaires which involved 210 farmers, comprising of 110 from Kathonzweni and from 100 Kirinyaga. Descriptive statistics, covariance analysis and binary logistic regression were applied through SPSS application to ascertain the factors contributing to diffusion and adoption of QPM technologies. The levels of quality protein maize awareness in Kathonzweni were much higher 100% compared to Kirinyaga 98%. Farmer to farmer and farmer groups in Kirinyaga and extension services in Kathonzweni play a major role in farmer awareness of quality protein maize technologies. The results from the binary logistic regression indicates socio economic characteristics in Kathonzweni and Kirinyaga such as age and marital status play a big role in diffusion and adoption of quality protein maize. Field days in both study regions contributed significantly to increased QPM adoption. Farming was found to be the main source of income with 97.3% in Kathonzweni and 98% Kirinyaga. Lack of seed and climate change were major constraints affecting agricultural production in the study areas. It is therefore recommended that farmer field days, demonstrations, farmer field schools, farmer to farmer and group meetings continue being promoted through increased extension visits, and investing in farmer education via seminars, as vehicles of disseminating agricultural innovations. Information and communication technologies like radio, mobile phone and television should be used to complement the conventional channels which promote access to quality protein maize information. This will increase adoption, hence increased production and high yields which will be part of the solution to food insecurity and raising poverty levels.
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    Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Asymptomatic Plasmodium Falciparum Infection and Anemia Among Pregnant Women at the first Antenatal Care Visit: A Hospital Based Cross-Sectional Study in Kwale County, Kenya
    (PLOS ONE, 2020-10-08) Nyamu, Gibson Waweru; Kihara, Jimmy Hussein; Oyugi, Elvis Omondi; Omballa, Victor; El-Busaidy, Hajara; Jeza, Victor Tunje
    Background: Prevalence of Prevalence of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in Kenya ranges from 9% to 18%. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with MiP and anemia in pregnancy (AiP) among asymptomatic women attending antenatal care (ANC) visits. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among pregnant women attending ANC at Msambweni Hospital, between September 2018 and February 2019. Data was collected and analyzed in Epi Info 7. Descriptive statistics were calculated and we compared MiP and AiP in asymptomatic cases to those without either condition. Adjusted prevalence Odds odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to identify factors associated with asymptomatic MiP and AiP. Results: We interviewed 308 study participants; their mean age was 26.6 years (± 5.8 years), mean gestational age was 21.8 weeks (± 6.0 weeks), 173 (56.2%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy, 12.9% (40/308) had MiP and 62.7% had AiP. Women who were aged ≤ 20 years had three times likelihood of developing MiP (aPOR = 3.1 Cl: 1.3–7.35) compared to those aged >20 years old. The likelihood of AiP was higher among women with gestational age ≥ 16 weeks (aPOR = 3.9, CI: 1.96–7.75), those with parasitemia (aPOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.31–8.18), those in third trimester of pregnancy (aPOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.40–4.96) and those who reported eating soil as a craving during pregnancy (aPOR = 1.9, 95%CI:1.15–3.29). Conclusions: Majority of the women had asymptomatic MiP and AiP. MiP was observed in one tenth of all study participants. Asymptomatic MiP was associated with younger age while AiP was associated with gestational age parasitemia, and soil consumption as a craving during pregnancy.
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    Chemical and Antioxidant Characterization of Dovyalis Caffra and Dovyalis Abyssinica Fruits in Kenya
    (ScienceDirect, 2022-10) Mwangi Daniel; Waweru a Joshua; Mbaabu Arimi a; Eunice Marete b; Niamh Harbourne
    Abstract This study aimed at chemical characterization of Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv.) Sim. and Dovyalis abyssinica (A. Rich.) Warb. fruits from Kinamba Town (KT) in Laikipia county and Gitoro Forest (GF) in Meru county of Kenya. All analysed fresh fruit samples had low pH values averaging at 2.67. Other tests showed D. abyssinica- GF to be significantly inferior to D. caffra-GF and D. caffra-KT in terms of TSS, TSS:TTA ratio, and ascorbic acid content. Based on these parameters, D. caffra-KT presents itself with a higher potential for direct consumption as compared to D. caffra- GF. Proximate analysis of dried fruit pulps demonstrated D. abyssinica-GF to be significantly higher in ash content and significantly lower in protein and fat contents compared to the other two samples. There were insignificant difference in the fibre and carbohydrate contents of all the fruit samples. In phytochemical analysis, D. caffra-GF recorded the highest total polyphenol content of 1845 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g while D. abyssinica-GF reported the lowest figure of 1128 mg GAE/100 g. Flavonoid and simple phenols fractions were in the range of 18.15–26.85% and 73.15–81.85% respectively in all fruit samples. As for antioxidant activity, D. caffra-GF recorded significantly high scores in both DPPH and CUPRAC assays, and D. abyssinica-GF the lowest. The range of DPPH and CUPRAC scores for all samples was 1995–4993 mg L-ascorbic acid/100 g and 1384–2303 mg L-ascorbic acid/100 g respectively. The current study presents the nutritional and health potential of D. caffra and D. abyssinica fruits. This forms a good basis for future adoption and exploitation of these fruits.
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    Development of a Complete Meal From Underutilized Indigenous and Exotic foods
    (Reseach gate, 2022-09) Arimi Josh; Musembi Amos; Kibowott C; Kiptoo K.; Awino Annett
    Abstract A complete meal is a food served and eaten in one sitting whose nutrient variety has been optimized. Green bananas are a good source of resistant starch and dietary fibre while Irish potatoes are rich in starch and dietary fibre. Moringa leaves are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins while being low calorific value. Fig gourd leaves are mainly rich in vitamins. However, many people prefer ripe bananas as snacks/fruit to cooked green ones. Moringa leaves are mainly used for medicinal purposes hence rarely used as a food item. Exotic vegetables are mostly preferred in food processing to indigenous ones hence making the indigenous vegetables underutilized. Development of a complete meal using these neglected food items would improve their utilization. The bananas, fig gourd leaves powder was prepared that could be reconstituted at the time of need. The flours were blended into a paste and a pellet as the final product in a ratio of Moringa: potato flour: fig gourd leaves (1:10:1). The paste and pellets were subjected to proximate analysis and sensory evaluation. The proximate composition of the paste was 3.22±0.5, 12.83±0.8 2.86±0.2, 11.32±0.6% for protein, fat, fibre and ash. The product was formulated to provide the RDA for an average adult of 62kg. The overall acceptability of the product by sensory panelist was liked moderately by 70% of the panelists making it viable food product.
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    The Value of Long-Term, Community-Based Monitoring of Marine Turtle Nesting: A Study in the Lamu Archipelago, Kenya
    (Cambridge University Press, 2017-08-01) Olendo, Mike I.; Okemwa, Gladys M.; Munga, Cosmas N.; Mulupi, Lilian K.; Mwasi, Lily D.; Mohamed, Hassan B.; Sibanda, Mxolisi; Ong'anda, Harrison O.
    Monitoring of nesting beaches is often the only feasible and low-cost approach for assessing sea turtle populations. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle nesting activity monitored over 17 successive years in the Lamu archipelago, Kenya. Community-based patrols were conducted on 26 stretches of beach clustered in five major locations. A total of 2,021 nests were recorded: 1,971 (97.5%) green turtle Chelonia mydas nests, 31 (1.5%) hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata nests, 8 (0.4%) olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea nests and 11 (0.5%) unidentified nests. Nesting occurred year-round, increasing during March–July, when 74% of nests were recorded. A stable trend in mean annual nesting densities was observed in all locations. Mean clutch sizes were 117.7 ± SE 1 eggs (range 20–189) for green turtles, 103 ± SE 6 eggs (range 37–150) for hawksbill turtles, and 103 ± SE 6 eggs (range 80–133) for olive ridley turtles. Curved carapace length for green turtles was 65–125 cm, and mean annual incubation duration was 55.5 ± SE 0.05 days. The mean incubation duration for green turtle nests differed significantly between months and seasons but not locations. The hatching success (pooled data) was 81.3% (n = 1,841) and was higher for in situ nests (81.0 ± SE 1.5%) compared to relocated nests (77.8 ± SE 1.4%). The results highlight the important contribution of community-based monitoring in Kenya to sustaining the sea turtle populations of the Western Indian Ocean region.